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Chapter 62 — Intelligent Vehicles

Alberto Broggi, Alex Zelinsky, Ümit Özgüner and Christian Laugier

This chapter describes the emerging robotics application field of intelligent vehicles – motor vehicles that have autonomous functions and capabilities. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 62.1 provides a motivation for why the development of intelligent vehicles is important, a brief history of the field, and the potential benefits of the technology. Section 62.2 describes the technologies that enable intelligent vehicles to sense vehicle, environment, and driver state, work with digital maps and satellite navigation, and communicate with intelligent transportation infrastructure. Section 62.3 describes the challenges and solutions associated with road scene understanding – a key capability for all intelligent vehicles. Section 62.4 describes advanced driver assistance systems, which use the robotics and sensing technologies described earlier to create new safety and convenience systems for motor vehicles, such as collision avoidance, lane keeping, and parking assistance. Section 62.5 describes driver monitoring technologies that are being developed to mitigate driver fatigue, inattention, and impairment. Section 62.6 describes fully autonomous intelligent vehicles systems that have been developed and deployed. The chapter is concluded in Sect. 62.7 with a discussion of future prospects, while Sect. 62.8 provides references to further reading and additional resources.

Collision avoidance at blind intersections using V2V and intention / expectation approach (Inria & Renault)

Author  Christian Laugier, Stephanie Lefevre

Video ID : 822

This video shows how collisions can be avoided at a blind intersection, by using vehicle-to-vehicle communications and by comparing the inferred intentions of drivers and their expected behaviors. More details can be found in [62.26].

Chapter 11 — Robots with Flexible Elements

Alessandro De Luca and Wayne J. Book

Design issues, dynamic modeling, trajectory planning, and feedback control problems are presented for robot manipulators having components with mechanical flexibility, either concentrated at the joints or distributed along the links. The chapter is divided accordingly into two main parts. Similarities or differences between the two types of flexibility are pointed out wherever appropriate.

For robots with flexible joints, the dynamic model is derived in detail by following a Lagrangian approach and possible simplified versions are discussed. The problem of computing the nominal torques that produce a desired robot motion is then solved. Regulation and trajectory tracking tasks are addressed by means of linear and nonlinear feedback control designs.

For robots with flexible links, relevant factors that lead to the consideration of distributed flexibility are analyzed. Dynamic models are presented, based on the treatment of flexibility through lumped elements, transfer matrices, or assumed modes. Several specific issues are then highlighted, including the selection of sensors, the model order used for control design, and the generation of effective commands that reduce or eliminate residual vibrations in rest-to-rest maneuvers. Feedback control alternatives are finally discussed.

In each of the two parts of this chapter, a section is devoted to the illustration of the original references and to further readings on the subject.

PID response to impulse in presence of link flexibility

Author  Wayne Book

Video ID : 780

A laboratory gantry robot with a final flexible link is excited by an external impulse disturbance. The video shows the very low damping of the flexible link under PID joint control. This is one of two coordinated videos, the other showing the same experiment under state feedback control. Reference: B. Post: Robust State Estimation for the Control of Flexible Robotic Manipulators, Dissertation, School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (2013)

Chapter 80 — Roboethics: Social and Ethical Implications

Gianmarco Veruggio, Fiorella Operto and George Bekey

This chapter outlines the main developments of roboethics 9 years after a worldwide debate on the subject – that is, the applied ethics about ethical, legal, and societal aspects of robotics – opened up. Today, roboethics not only counts several thousands of voices on the Web, but is the issue of important literature relating to almost all robotics applications, and of hundreds of rich projects, workshops, and conferences. This increasing interest and sometimes even fierce debate expresses the perception and need of scientists, manufacturers, and users of professional guidelines and ethical indications about robotics in society.

Some of the issues presented in the chapter are well known to engineers, and less known or unknown to scholars of humanities, and vice versa. However, because the subject is transversal to many disciplines, complex, articulated, and often misrepresented, some of the fundamental concepts relating to ethics in science and technology are recalled and clarified.

A detailed taxonomy of sensitive areas is presented. It is based on a study of several years and referred to by scientists and scholars, the result of which is the Euron Roboethics Roadmap. This taxonomy identifies themost evident/urgent/sensitive ethical problems in the main applicative fields of robotics, leaving more in-depth research to further studies.

Roboethics: Prosthesis

Author  Fiorella Operto

Video ID : 774

Ethical, legal and societal issues in medical robotics. Bionic implants and prosthetics can be used to restore human capabilities and functions. Applications range from human prostheses for locomotion, manipulation, vision, sensing, and other functions: Artificial limbs (legs and arms; artificial internal organs (heart, kidney); artificial senses (eyes, ears...); human augmentation (exoskeletons). This field has an important connection with neuroscience to develop neural interfaces and sensory-motor coordination systems for the integration of these bionic devices with the human body/brain. The very distinction between restoring and enhancing is problematic in some cases insofar as interventions on the human body may have a variety of possibly unpredictable side-effects. Social and economic discrimination towards human beings may arise as a consequence of the enhanced physical and mental properties of super-human cyborgs.

Chapter 47 — Motion Planning and Obstacle Avoidance

Javier Minguez, Florant Lamiraux and Jean-Paul Laumond

This chapter describes motion planning and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots. We will see how the two areas do not share the same modeling background. From the very beginning of motion planning, research has been dominated by computer sciences. Researchers aim at devising well-grounded algorithms with well-understood completeness and exactness properties.

The challenge of this chapter is to present both nonholonomic motion planning (Sects. 47.1–47.6) and obstacle avoidance (Sects. 47.7–47.10) issues. Section 47.11 reviews recent successful approaches that tend to embrace the whole problemofmotion planning and motion control. These approaches benefit from both nonholonomic motion planning and obstacle avoidance methods.

Sena wheelchair: Autonomous navigation at University of Malaga (2007)

Author  Jose Luis Blanco

Video ID : 708

This experiment demonstrates how a reactive navigation method successfully enables our robotic wheelchair SENA to navigate reliably in the entrance of our building at the University of Malaga (Spain). The robot navigates autonomously amidst dozens of students while avoiding collisions. The method is based on a space transformation, which simplifies finding collision-free movements in real-time despite the arbitrarily complex shape of the robot and its kinematic restrictions.

Chapter 19 — Robot Hands

Claudio Melchiorri and Makoto Kaneko

Multifingered robot hands have a potential capability for achieving dexterous manipulation of objects by using rolling and sliding motions. This chapter addresses design, actuation, sensing and control of multifingered robot hands. From the design viewpoint, they have a strong constraint in actuator implementation due to the space limitation in each joint. After briefly introducing the overview of anthropomorphic end-effector and its dexterity in Sect. 19.1, various approaches for actuation are provided with their advantages and disadvantages in Sect. 19.2. The key classification is (1) remote actuation or build-in actuation and (2) the relationship between the number of joints and the number of actuator. In Sect. 19.3, actuators and sensors used for multifingered hands are described. In Sect. 19.4, modeling and control are introduced by considering both dynamic effects and friction. Applications and trends are given in Sect. 19.5. Finally, this chapter is closed with conclusions and further reading.

The Dexmart Hand

Author  Claudio Melchiorri

Video ID : 767

Grasp and manipulation tasks executed by the Dexmart Hand, an anthropomorphic robot hand developed within an European research activity. Detailed aspects of the "twisted-spring" actuation principle are demonstrated.

Chapter 40 — Mobility and Manipulation

Oliver Brock, Jaeheung Park and Marc Toussaint

Mobile manipulation requires the integration of methodologies from all aspects of robotics. Instead of tackling each aspect in isolation,mobilemanipulation research exploits their interdependence to solve challenging problems. As a result, novel views of long-standing problems emerge. In this chapter, we present these emerging views in the areas of grasping, control, motion generation, learning, and perception. All of these areas must address the shared challenges of high-dimensionality, uncertainty, and task variability. The section on grasping and manipulation describes a trend towards actively leveraging contact and physical and dynamic interactions between hand, object, and environment. Research in control addresses the challenges of appropriately coupling mobility and manipulation. The field of motion generation increasingly blurs the boundaries between control and planning, leading to task-consistent motion in high-dimensional configuration spaces, even in dynamic and partially unknown environments. A key challenge of learning formobilemanipulation consists of identifying the appropriate priors, and we survey recent learning approaches to perception, grasping, motion, and manipulation. Finally, a discussion of promising methods in perception shows how concepts and methods from navigation and active perception are applied.

Motor-skill learning for robotics

Author  Jan Peters, Jens Kober, Katharina Mülling

Video ID : 667

We propose to divide the generic skill-learning problem into parts that can be well-understood from a robotics point of view. After appropriate learning approaches have been designed for these basic components, they will serve as the ingredients of a general approach to robot-skill learning. This video shows results of our work on learning to control, learning elementary movements, as well as steps towards the learning of complex tasks.

Universal gripper

Author  Cornel Creative Machines Lab

Video ID : 660

Universal robotic gripper based on the jamming of granular material.

Chapter 64 — Rehabilitation and Health Care Robotics

H.F. Machiel Van der Loos, David J. Reinkensmeyer and Eugenio Guglielmelli

The field of rehabilitation robotics considers robotic systems that 1) provide therapy for persons seeking to recover their physical, social, communication, or cognitive function, and/or that 2) assist persons who have a chronic disability to accomplish activities of daily living. This chapter will discuss these two main domains and provide descriptions of the major achievements of the field over its short history and chart out the challenges to come. Specifically, after providing background information on demographics (Sect. 64.1.2) and history (Sect. 64.1.3) of the field, Sect. 64.2 describes physical therapy and exercise training robots, and Sect. 64.3 describes robotic aids for people with disabilities. Section 64.4 then presents recent advances in smart prostheses and orthoses that are related to rehabilitation robotics. Finally, Sect. 64.5 provides an overview of recent work in diagnosis and monitoring for rehabilitation as well as other health-care issues. The reader is referred to Chap. 73 for cognitive rehabilitation robotics and to Chap. 65 for robotic smart home technologies, which are often considered assistive technologies for persons with disabilities. At the conclusion of the present chapter, the reader will be familiar with the history of rehabilitation robotics and its primary accomplishments, and will understand the challenges the field may face in the future as it seeks to improve health care and the well being of persons with disabilities.

HandSOME exoskeleton

Author  Peter Lum

Video ID : 568

A stroke patient's ability to pick up objects is immediately improved after donning the HandSOME orthosis. Springs provide a customized assistance profile that increases the active range of motion with only minimal decreases in grip force.

Chapter 30 — Sonar Sensing

Lindsay Kleeman and Roman Kuc

Sonar or ultrasonic sensing uses the propagation of acoustic energy at higher frequencies than normal hearing to extract information from the environment. This chapter presents the fundamentals and physics of sonar sensing for object localization, landmark measurement and classification in robotics applications. The source of sonar artifacts is explained and how they can be dealt with. Different ultrasonic transducer technologies are outlined with their main characteristics highlighted.

Sonar systems are described that range in sophistication from low-cost threshold-based ranging modules to multitransducer multipulse configurations with associated signal processing requirements capable of accurate range and bearing measurement, interference rejection, motion compensation, and target classification. Continuous-transmission frequency-modulated (CTFM) systems are introduced and their ability to improve target sensitivity in the presence of noise is discussed. Various sonar ring designs that provide rapid surrounding environmental coverage are described in conjunction with mapping results. Finally the chapter ends with a discussion of biomimetic sonar, which draws inspiration from animals such as bats and dolphins.

Antwerp biomimetic sonar tracking of a single ball

Author  Herbert Peremans

Video ID : 316

The Antwerp biomimetic bat-head sonar system consists of a single emitter and two receivers. The receivers are constructed by inserting a small omnidirectional microphone in the ear canal of a plastic replica of the outer ear of the bat Phyllostomus discolor. Using the head-related transfer (HRTF) cues, the system is able to localize multiple reflectors in three dimensions based on a single emission. This movie demonstrates the tracking of a single ball target.

Chapter 20 — Snake-Like and Continuum Robots

Ian D. Walker, Howie Choset and Gregory S. Chirikjian

This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art of snake-like (backbones comprised of many small links) and continuum (continuous backbone) robots. The history of each of these classes of robot is reviewed, focusing on key hardware developments. A review of the existing theory and algorithms for kinematics for both types of robot is presented, followed by a summary ofmodeling of locomotion for snake-like and continuum mechanisms.

Automatic insertion implant calibration

Author  Nabil Simaan

Video ID : 245

Video shows a steerable model of electrode arrays for cochlear implant surgery. The implant is built from an elastomeric body with an embedded Kevlar strand. The strand location controls the bending shape in 2-D and 3-D. The video shows one model that moves in plane [1, 2]. In [1] we reported the optimal planning of the insertion path. In [2] we reported the optimal strand location to achieve optimal insertion in 3-D cavities. References: [1] J. Zhang, J. T. Roland, S. Manolidis, N. Simaan: Optimal path planning for robotic insertion of steerable electrode arrays in cochlear implant surgery, J. Med. Dev. 3(1), 011001 (2009); [2] J. Zhang, N. Simaan: Design of underactuated steerable electrode arrays for optimal insertions, J. Mech. Robot. 5(1), 011008 (2013)