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Chapter 19 — Robot Hands

Claudio Melchiorri and Makoto Kaneko

Multifingered robot hands have a potential capability for achieving dexterous manipulation of objects by using rolling and sliding motions. This chapter addresses design, actuation, sensing and control of multifingered robot hands. From the design viewpoint, they have a strong constraint in actuator implementation due to the space limitation in each joint. After briefly introducing the overview of anthropomorphic end-effector and its dexterity in Sect. 19.1, various approaches for actuation are provided with their advantages and disadvantages in Sect. 19.2. The key classification is (1) remote actuation or build-in actuation and (2) the relationship between the number of joints and the number of actuator. In Sect. 19.3, actuators and sensors used for multifingered hands are described. In Sect. 19.4, modeling and control are introduced by considering both dynamic effects and friction. Applications and trends are given in Sect. 19.5. Finally, this chapter is closed with conclusions and further reading.

DLR hand

Author  DLR -Robotics and Mechatronics Center

Video ID : 768

A DLR hand

Chapter 72 — Social Robotics

Cynthia Breazeal, Kerstin Dautenhahn and Takayuki Kanda

This chapter surveys some of the principal research trends in Social Robotics and its application to human–robot interaction (HRI). Social (or Sociable) robots are designed to interact with people in a natural, interpersonal manner – often to achieve positive outcomes in diverse applications such as education, health, quality of life, entertainment, communication, and tasks requiring collaborative teamwork. The long-term goal of creating social robots that are competent and capable partners for people is quite a challenging task. They will need to be able to communicate naturally with people using both verbal and nonverbal signals. They will need to engage us not only on a cognitive level, but on an emotional level as well in order to provide effective social and task-related support to people. They will need a wide range of socialcognitive skills and a theory of other minds to understand human behavior, and to be intuitively understood by people. A deep understanding of human intelligence and behavior across multiple dimensions (i. e., cognitive, affective, physical, social, etc.) is necessary in order to design robots that can successfully play a beneficial role in the daily lives of people. This requires a multidisciplinary approach where the design of social robot technologies and methodologies are informed by robotics, artificial intelligence, psychology, neuroscience, human factors, design, anthropology, and more.

A robot that provides a direction based on the model of the environment

Author  Takayuki Kanda

Video ID : 259

The video shows a scene of direction-giving interaction. The robot communicates the way to reach the destination with pointing in the direction to go. This interaction is supported with its capability to understand the environment. That is, the robot possesses the model of the environment, like a geographical map, topology, and landmarks from a first-person perspective, the so called route-perspective model.

Visual communicative nonverbal behaviors of the Sunflower robot

Author  Kerstin Dautenhahn

Video ID : 219

The video illustrates the experiments as described in Koay et. al (2013). The Sunflower robot, developed by Kheng Lee Koay at the University of Hertfordshire, is a non-humanoid robot, using communicative signals inspired by dog-human interaction. The biological behaviors had been abstracted and translated to the specific robot embodiment. The results show that the robot is able to communicate its intention to a person and encourages the participant to attend to events and locations in a home environment. The work has been part of the of the European project LIREC (http://lirec.eu/project).

Chapter 15 — Robot Learning

Jan Peters, Daniel D. Lee, Jens Kober, Duy Nguyen-Tuong, J. Andrew Bagnell and Stefan Schaal

Machine learning offers to robotics a framework and set of tools for the design of sophisticated and hard-to-engineer behaviors; conversely, the challenges of robotic problems provide both inspiration, impact, and validation for developments in robot learning. The relationship between disciplines has sufficient promise to be likened to that between physics and mathematics. In this chapter, we attempt to strengthen the links between the two research communities by providing a survey of work in robot learning for learning control and behavior generation in robots. We highlight both key challenges in robot learning as well as notable successes. We discuss how contributions tamed the complexity of the domain and study the role of algorithms, representations, and prior knowledge in achieving these successes. As a result, a particular focus of our chapter lies on model learning for control and robot reinforcement learning. We demonstrate how machine learning approaches may be profitably applied, and we note throughout open questions and the tremendous potential for future research.

Inverted helicopter hovering

Author  Pieter Abbeel

Video ID : 352

An example of simulation-based optimization using a learned forward model. This brief video shows a successful application of reinforcement learning to the design of a controller for sustained inverted flight of an autonomous helicopter. The authors began by learning a stochastic, nonlinear forward model of the helicopter’s dynamics. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm was applied to automatically learn a controller for autonomous inverted hovering. The video illustrates Section 15.2.5 -- Applications of Model Learning, Springer Handbook of Robotics, 2nd ed (2016); Reference: A.Y. Ng, A. Coates, M. Diel, V. Ganapathi, J. Schulte, B. Tse, E. Berger, E. Liang: Autonomous inverted helicopter flight via reinforcement learning, IX Int. Symp. Exp. Robot. 2004, Springer Tract. Adv. Robot. 21, 363-372 (2006)

Chapter 64 — Rehabilitation and Health Care Robotics

H.F. Machiel Van der Loos, David J. Reinkensmeyer and Eugenio Guglielmelli

The field of rehabilitation robotics considers robotic systems that 1) provide therapy for persons seeking to recover their physical, social, communication, or cognitive function, and/or that 2) assist persons who have a chronic disability to accomplish activities of daily living. This chapter will discuss these two main domains and provide descriptions of the major achievements of the field over its short history and chart out the challenges to come. Specifically, after providing background information on demographics (Sect. 64.1.2) and history (Sect. 64.1.3) of the field, Sect. 64.2 describes physical therapy and exercise training robots, and Sect. 64.3 describes robotic aids for people with disabilities. Section 64.4 then presents recent advances in smart prostheses and orthoses that are related to rehabilitation robotics. Finally, Sect. 64.5 provides an overview of recent work in diagnosis and monitoring for rehabilitation as well as other health-care issues. The reader is referred to Chap. 73 for cognitive rehabilitation robotics and to Chap. 65 for robotic smart home technologies, which are often considered assistive technologies for persons with disabilities. At the conclusion of the present chapter, the reader will be familiar with the history of rehabilitation robotics and its primary accomplishments, and will understand the challenges the field may face in the future as it seeks to improve health care and the well being of persons with disabilities.

ReWalk

Author  Argo Medical Technologies

Video ID : 508

The ReWalk is a legged exoskeleton designed to help people with paralysis to walk.

Chapter 58 — Robotics in Hazardous Applications

James Trevelyan, William R. Hamel and Sung-Chul Kang

Robotics researchers have worked hard to realize a long-awaited vision: machines that can eliminate the need for people to work in hazardous environments. Chapter 60 is framed by the vision of disaster response: search and rescue robots carrying people from burning buildings or tunneling through collapsed rock falls to reach trapped miners. In this chapter we review tangible progress towards robots that perform routine work in places too dangerous for humans. Researchers still have many challenges ahead of them but there has been remarkable progress in some areas. Hazardous environments present special challenges for the accomplishment of desired tasks depending on the nature and magnitude of the hazards. Hazards may be present in the form of radiation, toxic contamination, falling objects or potential explosions. Technology that specialized engineering companies can develop and sell without active help from researchers marks the frontier of commercial feasibility. Just inside this border lie teleoperated robots for explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) and for underwater engineering work. Even with the typical tenfold disadvantage in manipulation performance imposed by the limits of today’s telepresence and teleoperation technology, in terms of human dexterity and speed, robots often can offer a more cost-effective solution. However, most routine applications in hazardous environments still lie far beyond the feasibility frontier. Fire fighting, remediating nuclear contamination, reactor decommissioning, tunneling, underwater engineering, underground mining and clearance of landmines and unexploded ordnance still present many unsolved problems.

IED hunters

Author  James P. Trevelyan

Video ID : 572

The video shows the work of route-clearance teams in Afghanistan.   This video has been included because researchers can see plenty of examples of realistic field conditions under which explosive-ordnance clearance is being done in Afghanistan. It is essential for researchers to have an accurate appreciation of the real field conditions before considering expensive research projects. It is also essential that researchers understand how easily insurgent forces can adapt and defeat technological solutions that have cost tens of millions of dollars to develop. Read the caption below carefully and then watch the video with this in mind. Better-quality blast-protected vehicles provide the teams with more confidence to handle challenging tasks. You will also see that improvised explosive devices (IEDs) used by insurgents are typically made from the unexploded ordnance (UXO) which the demining teams are trying to remove. Between 15% (typical failure rate for high quality US-made ammunition) and 70% (old Russian-designed ammunition) fail to explode when used.   These UXOs lie in the ground in a, at best, semi-stable state, so some easily exploded accidentally at times. Insurgents collect and attempt to disarm them, then set them up with remotely operated or vehicle-triggered detonation fuses. That is why the demining teams came to be seen as legitimate targets by insurgents, because they were removing the explosive devices the insurgency needed to fight people who they regarded as legitimate enemies. Although not explicitly acknowledged in the commentary, this video also demonstrates one of the many methods used by insurgents to adapt their techniques to defeat the highly advanced technologies available to the ISAF teams. By laying multiple devices in different locations, using different triggering devices and different deployment methods, the insurgents soon learned what the ISAF teams could and could not detect.   Every blast indicated a device that was not detected in advance by the ISAF team. Every device removed by the team indicated a device that was detected. In this way, the insurgents rapidly learned how to deploy undetectable devices that maximized their destructive power.

Chapter 23 — Biomimetic Robots

Kyu-Jin Cho and Robert Wood

Biomimetic robot designs attempt to translate biological principles into engineered systems, replacing more classical engineering solutions in order to achieve a function observed in the natural system. This chapter will focus on mechanism design for bio-inspired robots that replicate key principles from nature with novel engineering solutions. The challenges of biomimetic design include developing a deep understanding of the relevant natural system and translating this understanding into engineering design rules. This often entails the development of novel fabrication and actuation to realize the biomimetic design.

This chapter consists of four sections. In Sect. 23.1, we will define what biomimetic design entails, and contrast biomimetic robots with bio-inspired robots. In Sect. 23.2, we will discuss the fundamental components for developing a biomimetic robot. In Sect. 23.3, we will review detailed biomimetic designs that have been developed for canonical robot locomotion behaviors including flapping-wing flight, jumping, crawling, wall climbing, and swimming. In Sect. 23.4, we will discuss the enabling technologies for these biomimetic designs including material and fabrication.

Essex series robotic fish

Author  Jindong Liu, Huosheng Hu

Video ID : 431

These are Essex autonomous robotic fish tested in a public fish tank in the London Aquarium. The video was captured during preparations for unveiling the World's first autonomous robotic fish in 2006. It was reported by BBC and other news outlets. There are three motors on the tail joint. The skin is cosmetic and water flooded. The various models are labelled G6 , G8, andG9. This video shows how a "fish" detects the tank wall and other "fish" by IR sensors and changes its path to avoid collision.

Chapter 53 — Multiple Mobile Robot Systems

Lynne E. Parker, Daniela Rus and Gaurav S. Sukhatme

Within the context of multiple mobile, and networked robot systems, this chapter explores the current state of the art. After a brief introduction, we first examine architectures for multirobot cooperation, exploring the alternative approaches that have been developed. Next, we explore communications issues and their impact on multirobot teams in Sect. 53.3, followed by a discussion of networked mobile robots in Sect. 53.4. Following this we discuss swarm robot systems in Sect. 53.5 and modular robot systems in Sect. 53.6. While swarm and modular systems typically assume large numbers of homogeneous robots, other types of multirobot systems include heterogeneous robots. We therefore next discuss heterogeneity in cooperative robot teams in Sect. 53.7. Once robot teams allow for individual heterogeneity, issues of task allocation become important; Sect. 53.8 therefore discusses common approaches to task allocation. Section 53.9 discusses the challenges of multirobot learning, and some representative approaches. We outline some of the typical application domains which serve as test beds for multirobot systems research in Sect. 53.10. Finally, we conclude in Sect. 53.11 with some summary remarks and suggestions for further reading.

A robotic reconnaissance and surveillance team

Author  Paul Rybski, Saifallah Benjaafar, John R. Budenske, Mark Dvorak, Maria Gini, Dean F. Hougen, Donald G. Krantz, Perry Y. Li, Fred Malver, Brad Nelson, Nikolaos Papanikolopoulos, Sascha A. Stoeter, Richard Voyles, Kemel Berk Yesin

Video ID : 203

A two-tiered system for surveillance and exploration tasks is presented. The first tier is the scout (a small mobile sensor platform); the second tier consists of rangers (larger robots that transport and deploy scouts). Scouts send data (commonly video) to other robots via an RF data link.

Chapter 17 — Limbed Systems

Shuuji Kajita and Christian Ott

A limbed system is a mobile robot with a body, legs and arms. First, its general design process is discussed in Sect. 17.1. Then we consider issues of conceptual design and observe designs of various existing robots in Sect. 17.2. As an example in detail, the design of a humanoid robot HRP-4C is shown in Sect. 17.3. To design a limbed system of good performance, it is important to take into account of actuation and control, like gravity compensation, limit cycle dynamics, template models, and backdrivable actuation. These are discussed in Sect. 17.4.

In Sect. 17.5, we overview divergence of limbed systems. We see odd legged walkers, leg–wheel hybrid robots, leg–arm hybrid robots, tethered walking robots, and wall-climbing robots. To compare limbed systems of different configurations,we can use performance indices such as the gait sensitivity norm, the Froude number, and the specific resistance, etc., which are introduced in Sect. 17.6.

3-D passive dynamic walking robot

Author  Steven Collins

Video ID : 532

A passive dynamic walking robot in 3-D developed by Dr.Collins.

Chapter 18 — Parallel Mechanisms

Jean-Pierre Merlet, Clément Gosselin and Tian Huang

This chapter presents an introduction to the kinematics and dynamics of parallel mechanisms, also referred to as parallel robots. As opposed to classical serial manipulators, the kinematic architecture of parallel robots includes closed-loop kinematic chains. As a consequence, their analysis differs considerably from that of their serial counterparts. This chapter aims at presenting the fundamental formulations and techniques used in their analysis.

Diamond

Author  Tian Huang

Video ID : 47

This video demonstrates a 2-DOF high-speed parallel robot (Diamond).