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Chapter 20 — Snake-Like and Continuum Robots

Ian D. Walker, Howie Choset and Gregory S. Chirikjian

This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art of snake-like (backbones comprised of many small links) and continuum (continuous backbone) robots. The history of each of these classes of robot is reviewed, focusing on key hardware developments. A review of the existing theory and algorithms for kinematics for both types of robot is presented, followed by a summary ofmodeling of locomotion for snake-like and continuum mechanisms.

Stenting deployment system

Author  Nabil Simaan

Video ID : 248

A 3-DOF continuum robot for intraocular dexterity and stent placement. The video shows a stent being deployed in a choroallantoic chick membrane which represents the vasculature of the retina [1, 2]. Note that [1] reports an algorithm for assisted telemanipulation and force sensing at the tip of a guide wire using a rapid interpolation map by elliptic integrals. References: [1] W. Wei, N. Simaan: Modeling, force sensing, and control of flexible cannulas for microstent delivery, J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 134(4), 041004 (2012); [2] W. Wei, C. Popplewell, H. Fine, S. Chang, N. Simaan: Enabling technology for micro-vascular stenting in ophthalmic surgery, ASME J. Med. Dev. 4(2), 014503-01 - 014503-06 (2010)

Chapter 76 — Evolutionary Robotics

Stefano Nolfi, Josh Bongard, Phil Husbands and Dario Floreano

Evolutionary Robotics is a method for automatically generating artificial brains and morphologies of autonomous robots. This approach is useful both for investigating the design space of robotic applications and for testing scientific hypotheses of biological mechanisms and processes. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods and results of Evolutionary Robotics with robots of different shapes, dimensions, and operation features. We consider both simulated and physical robots with special consideration to the transfer between the two worlds.

More complex robots evolve in more complex environments

Author  Josh Bongard

Video ID : 772

This set of videos demonstrates that complex environments influence the evolution of robots with more complex body plans.

Chapter 36 — Motion for Manipulation Tasks

James Kuffner and Jing Xiao

This chapter serves as an introduction to Part D by giving an overview of motion generation and control strategies in the context of robotic manipulation tasks. Automatic control ranging from the abstract, high-level task specification down to fine-grained feedback at the task interface are considered. Some of the important issues include modeling of the interfaces between the robot and the environment at the different time scales of motion and incorporating sensing and feedback. Manipulation planning is introduced as an extension to the basic motion planning problem, which can be modeled as a hybrid system of continuous configuration spaces arising from the act of grasping and moving parts in the environment. The important example of assembly motion is discussed through the analysis of contact states and compliant motion control. Finally, methods aimed at integrating global planning with state feedback control are summarized.

Demonstration of multisensor integration in industrial manipulation

Author  Torsten Kröger et al.

Video ID : 361

This video demonstrates the potential of multisensor integration in industrial manipulation. A robot is programmed to play the Jenga game. Two cameras are mounted on the manipulator to calculate the positions of all cuboids online. A 6-DOF force/torque sensor and a 6-DOF acceleration sensor are mounted between a hand and gripper to give force/tactile feedback. The manipulator randomly chooses one block and tries to push it out and then put it on the top of the tower. In this video, a record of putting 29 blocks onto the top of the tower is achieved.

Chapter 47 — Motion Planning and Obstacle Avoidance

Javier Minguez, Florant Lamiraux and Jean-Paul Laumond

This chapter describes motion planning and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots. We will see how the two areas do not share the same modeling background. From the very beginning of motion planning, research has been dominated by computer sciences. Researchers aim at devising well-grounded algorithms with well-understood completeness and exactness properties.

The challenge of this chapter is to present both nonholonomic motion planning (Sects. 47.1–47.6) and obstacle avoidance (Sects. 47.7–47.10) issues. Section 47.11 reviews recent successful approaches that tend to embrace the whole problemofmotion planning and motion control. These approaches benefit from both nonholonomic motion planning and obstacle avoidance methods.

Mobile-robot navigation system in outdoor pedestrian environment

Author  Chin-Kai Chang

Video ID : 711

We present a mobile-robot navigation system guided by a novel vision-based, road-recognition approach. The system represents the road as a set of lines extrapolated from the detected image contour segments. These lines enable the robot to maintain its heading by centering the vanishing point in its field of view, and to correct the long-term drift from its original lateral position. We integrate odometry and our visual, road-recognition system into a grid-based local map which estimates the robot pose as well as its surroundings to generate a movement path. Our road recognition system is able to estimate the road center on a standard dataset with 25 076 images to within 11.42 cm (with respect to roads that are at least 3 m wide). It outperforms three other state-of-the-art systems. In addition, we extensively test our navigation system in four busy campus environments using a wheeled robot. Our tests cover more than 5 km of autonomous driving on a busy college campus without failure. This demonstrates the robustness of the proposed approach to handle challenges including occlusion by pedestrians, non-standard complex road markings and shapes, shadows, and miscellaneous obstacle objects.

Chapter 43 — Telerobotics

Günter Niemeyer, Carsten Preusche, Stefano Stramigioli and Dongjun Lee

In this chapter we present an overview of the field of telerobotics with a focus on control aspects. To acknowledge some of the earliest contributions and motivations the field has provided to robotics in general, we begin with a brief historical perspective and discuss some of the challenging applications. Then, after introducing and classifying the various system architectures and control strategies, we emphasize bilateral control and force feedback. This particular area has seen intense research work in the pursuit of telepresence. We also examine some of the emerging efforts, extending telerobotic concepts to unconventional systems and applications. Finally,we suggest some further reading for a closer engagement with the field.

Single- and dual-arm supervisory and shared control

Author  Paul S. Schenker, Antal K. Bejczy, Won S. Kim

Video ID : 299

This video shows single- and dual-arm supervisory and shared teleoperation control for the remote repair of solar panels attached to a space satellite.

Chapter 10 — Redundant Robots

Stefano Chiaverini, Giuseppe Oriolo and Anthony A. Maciejewski

This chapter focuses on redundancy resolution schemes, i. e., the techniques for exploiting the redundant degrees of freedom in the solution of the inverse kinematics problem. This is obviously an issue of major relevance for motion planning and control purposes.

In particular, task-oriented kinematics and the basic methods for its inversion at the velocity (first-order differential) level are first recalled, with a discussion of the main techniques for handling kinematic singularities. Next, different firstorder methods to solve kinematic redundancy are arranged in two main categories, namely those based on the optimization of suitable performance criteria and those relying on the augmentation of the task space. Redundancy resolution methods at the acceleration (second-order differential) level are then considered in order to take into account dynamics issues, e.g., torque minimization. Conditions under which a cyclic task motion results in a cyclic joint motion are also discussed; this is a major issue when a redundant manipulator is used to execute a repetitive task, e.g., in industrial applications. The use of kinematic redundancy for fault tolerance is analyzed in detail. Suggestions for further reading are given in a final section.

Human robot arm with redundancy resolution

Author  PRISMA Lab

Video ID : 816

In this video, the mapping of human-arm motion to an anthropomorphic robot arm (7-DOF Kuka LWR ) using Xsens MVN is demonstrated. The desired end-effector trajectories of the robot are reconstructed from the human hand, forearm and upper arm trajectories in the Cartesian space obtained from the motion tracking system by means of human-arm biomechanical models and sensor-fusion algorithms embedded in the Xsens technology. The desired pose of the robot is reconstructed taking into account the differences between the robot and human-arm kinematics and is obtained by suitably scaling to the human-arm link dimensions.

Chapter 20 — Snake-Like and Continuum Robots

Ian D. Walker, Howie Choset and Gregory S. Chirikjian

This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art of snake-like (backbones comprised of many small links) and continuum (continuous backbone) robots. The history of each of these classes of robot is reviewed, focusing on key hardware developments. A review of the existing theory and algorithms for kinematics for both types of robot is presented, followed by a summary ofmodeling of locomotion for snake-like and continuum mechanisms.

Shoe decoration using concentric tube robot

Author  Pierre Dupont

Video ID : 251

This 2012 video illustrates bimanual robotic shoe decoration using Swarovsky crystals at a charity event for Boston Children's Hospital in Stuart Weitzman's New York City showroom.

Modsnake pole climb

Author  Howie Choset

Video ID : 171

CMU Modsnake climbing and navigating curves on a jagged pole.