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Chapter 20 — Snake-Like and Continuum Robots

Ian D. Walker, Howie Choset and Gregory S. Chirikjian

This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art of snake-like (backbones comprised of many small links) and continuum (continuous backbone) robots. The history of each of these classes of robot is reviewed, focusing on key hardware developments. A review of the existing theory and algorithms for kinematics for both types of robot is presented, followed by a summary ofmodeling of locomotion for snake-like and continuum mechanisms.

Shoe decoration using concentric tube robot

Author  Pierre Dupont

Video ID : 251

This 2012 video illustrates bimanual robotic shoe decoration using Swarovsky crystals at a charity event for Boston Children's Hospital in Stuart Weitzman's New York City showroom.

Chapter 26 — Flying Robots

Stefan Leutenegger, Christoph Hürzeler, Amanda K. Stowers, Kostas Alexis, Markus W. Achtelik, David Lentink, Paul Y. Oh and Roland Siegwart

Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) have drawn increasing attention recently, owing to advancements in related research, technology, and applications. While having been deployed successfully in military scenarios for decades, civil use cases have lately been tackled by the robotics research community.

This chapter overviews the core elements of this highly interdisciplinary field; the reader is guided through the design process of aerial robots for various applications starting with a qualitative characterization of different types of UAS. Design and modeling are closely related, forming a typically iterative process of drafting and analyzing the related properties. Therefore, we overview aerodynamics and dynamics, as well as their application to fixed-wing, rotary-wing, and flapping-wing UAS, including related analytical tools and practical guidelines. Respecting use-case-specific requirements and core autonomous robot demands, we finally provide guidelines to related system integration challenges.

Structural, inspection-path planning via iterative, viewpoint resampling with application to aerial robotics

Author  Kostas Alexis

Video ID : 604

This video presents experimental results relevant for the ICRA 2015 paper: A. Bircher, K. Alexis, M. Burri, P. Oettershagen, S. Omari, T. Mantel, R. Siegwart: Structural inspection path planning via iterative viewpoint resampling with application to aerial robotics, IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. (ICRA), Seattle (2015), pp. 6423 - 6430; doi: 10.1109/ICRA.2015.7140101

Chapter 0 — Preface

Bruno Siciliano, Oussama Khatib and Torsten Kröger

The preface of the Second Edition of the Springer Handbook of Robotics contains three videos about the creation of the book and using its multimedia app on mobile devices.

Using the multimedia app on mobile devices

Author  Torsten Kröger

Video ID : 843

The video illustrates how to use the multimedia app for the Second Edition of the Springer Handbook of Robotics. Using a smartphone or tablet PC, users can access each of the more than 700 videos while reading the printed or e-book version of the handbook.

Chapter 1 — Robotics and the Handbook

Bruno Siciliano and Oussama Khatib

Robots! Robots on Mars and in oceans, in hospitals and homes, in factories and schools; robots fighting fires, making goods and products, saving time and lives. Robots today are making a considerable impact on many aspects of modern life, from industrial manufacturing to healthcare, transportation, and exploration of the deep space and sea. Tomorrow, robotswill be as pervasive and personal as today’s personal computers. This chapter retraces the evolution of this fascinating field from the ancient to themodern times through a number of milestones: from the first automated mechanical artifact (1400 BC) through the establishment of the robot concept in the 1920s, the realization of the first industrial robots in the 1960s, the definition of robotics science and the birth of an active research community in the 1980s, and the expansion towards the challenges of the human world of the twenty-first century. Robotics in its long journey has inspired this handbook which is organized in three layers: the foundations of robotics science; the consolidated methodologies and technologies of robot design, sensing and perception, manipulation and interfaces, mobile and distributed robotics; the advanced applications of field and service robotics, as well as of human-centered and life-like robotics.

Robots — A 50 year journey

Author  Oussama Khatib

Video ID : 805

In this collection of short segments, this video retraces the history of the most influential modern robots developed in the 20th century (1950-2000). The 50-year journey was first presented at the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) in San Francisco.

Chapter 6 — Model Identification

John Hollerbach, Wisama Khalil and Maxime Gautier

This chapter discusses how to determine the kinematic parameters and the inertial parameters of robot manipulators. Both instances of model identification are cast into a common framework of least-squares parameter estimation, and are shown to have common numerical issues relating to the identifiability of parameters, adequacy of the measurement sets, and numerical robustness. These discussions are generic to any parameter estimation problem, and can be applied in other contexts.

For kinematic calibration, the main aim is to identify the geometric Denavit–Hartenberg (DH) parameters, although joint-based parameters relating to the sensing and transmission elements can also be identified. Endpoint sensing or endpoint constraints can provide equivalent calibration equations. By casting all calibration methods as closed-loop calibration, the calibration index categorizes methods in terms of how many equations per pose are generated.

Inertial parameters may be estimated through the execution of a trajectory while sensing one or more components of force/torque at a joint. Load estimation of a handheld object is simplest because of full mobility and full wrist force-torque sensing. For link inertial parameter estimation, restricted mobility of links nearer the base as well as sensing only the joint torque means that not all inertial parameters can be identified. Those that can be identified are those that affect joint torque, although they may appear in complicated linear combinations.

Dynamic identification of Staubli TX40 : Trajectory with load

Author  Maxime Gautier

Video ID : 481

This video shows a trajectory with a known payload mass of 4.5 kg attached to the end effector of an industrial Staubli TX 40 manipulator. Joint position and current reference data are collected on this short-time (8s) trajectory and used with data collected on a trajectory without load to identify all the dynamic parameters of the links, load and joint drive chain in a single global LS procedure. Details and results are given in the paper : M. Gautier, S. Briot: Global identification of joint drive gains and dynamic parameters of robots, ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control 136(5), 051025̶ 051025-9 (2014); doi:10.1115/1.4027506

Chapter 44 — Networked Robots

Dezhen Song, Ken Goldberg and Nak-Young Chong

As of 2013, almost all robots have access to computer networks that offer extensive computing, memory, and other resources that can dramatically improve performance. The underlying enabling framework is the focus of this chapter: networked robots. Networked robots trace their origin to telerobots or remotely controlled robots. Telerobots are widely used to explore undersea terrains and outer space, to defuse bombs and to clean up hazardous waste. Until 1994, telerobots were accessible only to trained and trusted experts through dedicated communication channels. This chapter will describe relevant network technology, the history of networked robots as it evolves from teleoperation to cloud robotics, properties of networked robots, how to build a networked robot, example systems. Later in the chapter, we focus on the recent progress on cloud robotics, and topics for future research.

A multi-operator, multi-robot teleoperation system

Author  Nak Young Chong

Video ID : 84

A multi-operator, multi-robot teleoperation system for collaborative maintenance operations: Video Proc. of ICRA 2001. Over the past decades, problems and notable results have been reported mainly in the single-operator single-robot (SOSR) teleoperation system. Recently, the need for cooperation has rapidly emerged in many possible applications such as plant maintenance, construction, and surgery, and considerable efforts have therefore been made toward the coordinated control of multi-operator, multi-robot (MOMR) teleoperation. We have developed coordinated control technologies for multi-telerobot cooperation in a common environment remotely controlled from multiple operators physically distant from each other. To overcome the operators' delayed visual perception arising from network throughput limitations, we have suggested several coordinated control aids at the local operator site. Operators control their master to get their telerobot to cooperate with the counterpart telerobot using the predictive simulator, as well as video image feedback. This video explains the details of the testbed and investigates the use of an online predictive simulator to assist the operator in coping with time delay.

Chapter 79 — Robotics for Education

David P. Miller and Illah Nourbakhsh

Educational robotics programs have become popular in most developed countries and are becoming more and more prevalent in the developing world as well. Robotics is used to teach problem solving, programming, design, physics, math and even music and art to students at all levels of their education. This chapter provides an overview of some of the major robotics programs along with the robot platforms and the programming environments commonly used. Like robot systems used in research, there is a constant development and upgrade of hardware and software – so this chapter provides a snapshot of the technologies being used at this time. The chapter concludes with a review of the assessment strategies that can be used to determine if a particular robotics program is benefitting students in the intended ways.

Robotics summer camps - PRIA

Author  Practical Robotics Institute Austria

Video ID : 636

This short video displays several of the activities available at PRIA's educational robotics summer camps in Europe. Details from: http://pria.at/en/ .

Chapter 62 — Intelligent Vehicles

Alberto Broggi, Alex Zelinsky, Ümit Özgüner and Christian Laugier

This chapter describes the emerging robotics application field of intelligent vehicles – motor vehicles that have autonomous functions and capabilities. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 62.1 provides a motivation for why the development of intelligent vehicles is important, a brief history of the field, and the potential benefits of the technology. Section 62.2 describes the technologies that enable intelligent vehicles to sense vehicle, environment, and driver state, work with digital maps and satellite navigation, and communicate with intelligent transportation infrastructure. Section 62.3 describes the challenges and solutions associated with road scene understanding – a key capability for all intelligent vehicles. Section 62.4 describes advanced driver assistance systems, which use the robotics and sensing technologies described earlier to create new safety and convenience systems for motor vehicles, such as collision avoidance, lane keeping, and parking assistance. Section 62.5 describes driver monitoring technologies that are being developed to mitigate driver fatigue, inattention, and impairment. Section 62.6 describes fully autonomous intelligent vehicles systems that have been developed and deployed. The chapter is concluded in Sect. 62.7 with a discussion of future prospects, while Sect. 62.8 provides references to further reading and additional resources.

Cybercars and the city of tomorrow

Author  Christian Laugier, Michel Parent, Inria Multimedia

Video ID : 429

The video presents an overview of the CityMobil European Project and of the related concept of cybercars.

Chapter 34 — Visual Servoing

François Chaumette, Seth Hutchinson and Peter Corke

This chapter introduces visual servo control, using computer vision data in the servo loop to control the motion of a robot. We first describe the basic techniques that are by now well established in the field. We give a general overview of the formulation of the visual servo control problem, and describe the two archetypal visual servo control schemes: image-based and pose-based visual servo control. We then discuss performance and stability issues that pertain to these two schemes, motivating advanced techniques. Of the many advanced techniques that have been developed, we discuss 2.5-D, hybrid, partitioned, and switched approaches. Having covered a variety of control schemes, we deal with target tracking and controlling motion directly in the joint space and extensions to under-actuated ground and aerial robots. We conclude by describing applications of visual servoing in robotics.

PBVS on a 6-DOF robot arm (2)

Author  Francois Chaumette, Seth Hutchinson, Peter Corke

Video ID : 63

This video shows a PBVS on a 6-DOF robot arm with (c*^t_c, theta u) as visual features. It corresponds to the results depicted in Figure 34.10.

Chapter 13 — Behavior-Based Systems

François Michaud and Monica Nicolescu

Nature is filled with examples of autonomous creatures capable of dealing with the diversity, unpredictability, and rapidly changing conditions of the real world. Such creatures must make decisions and take actions based on incomplete perception, time constraints, limited knowledge about the world, cognition, reasoning and physical capabilities, in uncontrolled conditions and with very limited cues about the intent of others. Consequently, one way of evaluating intelligence is based on the creature’s ability to make the most of what it has available to handle the complexities of the real world. The main objective of this chapter is to explain behavior-based systems and their use in autonomous control problems and applications. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 13.1 overviews robot control, introducing behavior-based systems in relation to other established approaches to robot control. Section 13.2 follows by outlining the basic principles of behavior-based systems that make them distinct from other types of robot control architectures. The concept of basis behaviors, the means of modularizing behavior-based systems, is presented in Sect. 13.3. Section 13.4 describes how behaviors are used as building blocks for creating representations for use by behavior-based systems, enabling the robot to reason about the world and about itself in that world. Section 13.5 presents several different classes of learning methods for behavior-based systems, validated on single-robot and multirobot systems. Section 13.6 provides an overview of various robotics problems and application domains that have successfully been addressed or are currently being studied with behavior-based control. Finally, Sect. 13.7 concludes the chapter.

SpartacUS

Author  François Michaud

Video ID : 417

AAAI 2005 Robot Challenge entry from the Université de Sherbrooke, named Spartacus, using MBA (motivated behavioral architecture) to enable a robot to participate at the conference as a regular attendee. Reference: F. Michaud, C. Côté, D. Létourneau, Y. Brosseau, J.-M. Valin, É. Beaudry, C. Raïevsky, A. Ponchon, P. Moisan, P. Lepage, Y. Morin, F. Gagnon, P. Giguère, M.-A. Roux, S. Caron, P. Frenette, F. Kabanza: Spartacus attending the 2005 AAAI Conference, Auton. Robot. 12(2), 211–222 (2007)