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Chapter 43 — Telerobotics

Günter Niemeyer, Carsten Preusche, Stefano Stramigioli and Dongjun Lee

In this chapter we present an overview of the field of telerobotics with a focus on control aspects. To acknowledge some of the earliest contributions and motivations the field has provided to robotics in general, we begin with a brief historical perspective and discuss some of the challenging applications. Then, after introducing and classifying the various system architectures and control strategies, we emphasize bilateral control and force feedback. This particular area has seen intense research work in the pursuit of telepresence. We also examine some of the emerging efforts, extending telerobotic concepts to unconventional systems and applications. Finally,we suggest some further reading for a closer engagement with the field.

Semi-autonomous teleoperation of multiple UAVs: Passing a narrow gap

Author  Antonio Franchi, Paolo Robuffo Giordano

Video ID : 71

This video shows the bilateral teleoperation of a group of four quadrotors UAVs navigating in a cluttered environment. The human operator provides velocity-level motion commands and receives force-feedback information on the UAV interaction with the environment (e.g., presence of obstacles and external disturbances).

Chapter 24 — Wheeled Robots

Woojin Chung and Karl Iagnemma

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce, analyze, and compare various wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) and to present several realizations and commonly encountered designs. The mobility of WMR is discussed on the basis of the kinematic constraints resulting from the pure rolling conditions at the contact points between the wheels and the ground. Practical robot structures are classified according to the number of wheels, and features are introduced focusing on commonly adopted designs. Omnimobile robot and articulated robots realizations are described. Wheel–terrain interaction models are presented in order to compute forces at the contact interface. Four possible wheel-terrain interaction cases are shown on the basis of relative stiffness of the wheel and terrain. A suspension system is required to move on uneven surfaces. Structures, dynamics, and important features of commonly used suspensions are explained.

An innovative planetary rover with extended climbing abilities

Author  Roland Siegwart

Video ID : 329

This video shows a suspension design for a prototype planetary exploration rover. In this suspension design, each wheel is equipped with independent actuators and a linkage mechanism that enables the robot to adapt its configuration to irregular ground conditions. This enables the rover to exhibit superior traction and obstacle-crossing performance compared to those with a standard suspension.

Chapter 30 — Sonar Sensing

Lindsay Kleeman and Roman Kuc

Sonar or ultrasonic sensing uses the propagation of acoustic energy at higher frequencies than normal hearing to extract information from the environment. This chapter presents the fundamentals and physics of sonar sensing for object localization, landmark measurement and classification in robotics applications. The source of sonar artifacts is explained and how they can be dealt with. Different ultrasonic transducer technologies are outlined with their main characteristics highlighted.

Sonar systems are described that range in sophistication from low-cost threshold-based ranging modules to multitransducer multipulse configurations with associated signal processing requirements capable of accurate range and bearing measurement, interference rejection, motion compensation, and target classification. Continuous-transmission frequency-modulated (CTFM) systems are introduced and their ability to improve target sensitivity in the presence of noise is discussed. Various sonar ring designs that provide rapid surrounding environmental coverage are described in conjunction with mapping results. Finally the chapter ends with a discussion of biomimetic sonar, which draws inspiration from animals such as bats and dolphins.

Side-looking sonar system traveling down a hallway (camera view)

Author  Roman Kuc

Video ID : 314

A camera view from a mobile robot sonar traveling down a hallway past a cinder-block wall and then along the wall, passing a doorway and a window. When scanned with side-looking sonar, the door jamb and window jamb form retro-reflectors that produce echo waveforms that are distinguishable from the cinder block surface.

Chapter 74 — Learning from Humans

Aude G. Billard, Sylvain Calinon and Rüdiger Dillmann

This chapter surveys the main approaches developed to date to endow robots with the ability to learn from human guidance. The field is best known as robot programming by demonstration, robot learning from/by demonstration, apprenticeship learning and imitation learning. We start with a brief historical overview of the field. We then summarize the various approaches taken to solve four main questions: when, what, who and when to imitate. We emphasize the importance of choosing well the interface and the channels used to convey the demonstrations, with an eye on interfaces providing force control and force feedback. We then review algorithmic approaches to model skills individually and as a compound and algorithms that combine learning from human guidance with reinforcement learning. We close with a look on the use of language to guide teaching and a list of open issues.

Active teaching

Author  Maya Cakmak, Andrea Thomaz

Video ID : 107

Active-teaching scenario where the Simon humanoid robot asks for help during or after teaching, verifying that its understanding of the task is correct. Reference: M. Cakmak, A.L. Thomaz: Designing robot learners that ask good questions, Proc. ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), Boston (2012), pp. 17–24, URL: https://www.youtube.com/user/SimonTheSocialRobot .

Chapter 53 — Multiple Mobile Robot Systems

Lynne E. Parker, Daniela Rus and Gaurav S. Sukhatme

Within the context of multiple mobile, and networked robot systems, this chapter explores the current state of the art. After a brief introduction, we first examine architectures for multirobot cooperation, exploring the alternative approaches that have been developed. Next, we explore communications issues and their impact on multirobot teams in Sect. 53.3, followed by a discussion of networked mobile robots in Sect. 53.4. Following this we discuss swarm robot systems in Sect. 53.5 and modular robot systems in Sect. 53.6. While swarm and modular systems typically assume large numbers of homogeneous robots, other types of multirobot systems include heterogeneous robots. We therefore next discuss heterogeneity in cooperative robot teams in Sect. 53.7. Once robot teams allow for individual heterogeneity, issues of task allocation become important; Sect. 53.8 therefore discusses common approaches to task allocation. Section 53.9 discusses the challenges of multirobot learning, and some representative approaches. We outline some of the typical application domains which serve as test beds for multirobot systems research in Sect. 53.10. Finally, we conclude in Sect. 53.11 with some summary remarks and suggestions for further reading.

CKBOTS reconfigurable robots

Author  Mark Yim

Video ID : 196

This video shows reconfigurable robots, which are capable of a variety of configurations and modes of locomotion, including bipeds that can stand up and walk. This system is robust in a variety of situations, as shown in the video. The system has three clusters: when clusters disconnect, they enter a search mode and approach each other to assemble. After successful self-reassembling, the robot system stands up to continue its task.

Chapter 18 — Parallel Mechanisms

Jean-Pierre Merlet, Clément Gosselin and Tian Huang

This chapter presents an introduction to the kinematics and dynamics of parallel mechanisms, also referred to as parallel robots. As opposed to classical serial manipulators, the kinematic architecture of parallel robots includes closed-loop kinematic chains. As a consequence, their analysis differs considerably from that of their serial counterparts. This chapter aims at presenting the fundamental formulations and techniques used in their analysis.

IPAnema

Author  Andreas Pott

Video ID : 50

This video demonstrates a fully constrained cable-driven parallel robot with eight cables. Reference: A. Pott, H. Mütherich, W. Kraus, V. Schmidt, P. Miermeister, A. Verl: IPAnema: A family of cable-driven parallel robots for industrial applications, Mech. Mach. Sci. 12, 119-134 (2013)

Chapter 10 — Redundant Robots

Stefano Chiaverini, Giuseppe Oriolo and Anthony A. Maciejewski

This chapter focuses on redundancy resolution schemes, i. e., the techniques for exploiting the redundant degrees of freedom in the solution of the inverse kinematics problem. This is obviously an issue of major relevance for motion planning and control purposes.

In particular, task-oriented kinematics and the basic methods for its inversion at the velocity (first-order differential) level are first recalled, with a discussion of the main techniques for handling kinematic singularities. Next, different firstorder methods to solve kinematic redundancy are arranged in two main categories, namely those based on the optimization of suitable performance criteria and those relying on the augmentation of the task space. Redundancy resolution methods at the acceleration (second-order differential) level are then considered in order to take into account dynamics issues, e.g., torque minimization. Conditions under which a cyclic task motion results in a cyclic joint motion are also discussed; this is a major issue when a redundant manipulator is used to execute a repetitive task, e.g., in industrial applications. The use of kinematic redundancy for fault tolerance is analyzed in detail. Suggestions for further reading are given in a final section.

Configuration space control of KUKA Lightweight Robot LWR with EXARM Exoskeleton

Author  Telerobotics Lab

Video ID : 817

This video shows some advanced inverse kinematics mapping that enables the control of a redundant manipulator (KUKA LWR) by means of Cartesian location and geometric correspondence to the human arm. Thereby the null-space of the robot manipulator can be exploited to enable very intuitive operations. Joint limits and singularities are avoided, as well, by optimized mounting of the robot and the hand.

Chapter 9 — Force Control

Luigi Villani and Joris De Schutter

A fundamental requirement for the success of a manipulation task is the capability to handle the physical contact between a robot and the environment. Pure motion control turns out to be inadequate because the unavoidable modeling errors and uncertainties may cause a rise of the contact force, ultimately leading to an unstable behavior during the interaction, especially in the presence of rigid environments. Force feedback and force control becomes mandatory to achieve a robust and versatile behavior of a robotic system in poorly structured environments as well as safe and dependable operation in the presence of humans. This chapter starts from the analysis of indirect force control strategies, conceived to keep the contact forces limited by ensuring a suitable compliant behavior to the end effector, without requiring an accurate model of the environment. Then the problem of interaction tasks modeling is analyzed, considering both the case of a rigid environment and the case of a compliant environment. For the specification of an interaction task, natural constraints set by the task geometry and artificial constraints set by the control strategy are established, with respect to suitable task frames. This formulation is the essential premise to the synthesis of hybrid force/motion control schemes.

COMRADE: Compliant motion research and development environment

Author  Joris De Schutter, Herman Bruyninckx, Hendrik Van Brussel et al.

Video ID : 691

The video collects works on force control developed in the 1970s-1980s and 1990s at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. The tasks were programmed and simulated using the task-frame-based software package COMRADE (compliant motion research and development environment). The video was recorded in the mid-1990s. The main references for the video are: 1. H. Van Brussel, J. Simons: The adaptable compliance concept and its use for automatic assembly by active force feedback accommodations, Proc. 9th Int. Symposium Indust. Robot., Washington (1979), pp.167-181 2. J. Simons, H. Van Brussel, J. De Schutter, J. Verhaert: A self-learning automaton with variable resolution for high precision assembly by industrial robots, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 27(5), 1109-1113 (1982) 3. J. De Schutter, H. Van Brussel: Compliant robot motion II. A control approach based on external control loops, Int. J. Robot. Res. 7(4), 18-33 (1988) 3.J. De Schutter, H. Van Brussel: Compliant robot motion I. A formalism for specifying compliant motion tasks, Int. J. Robot. Res. 7(4), 3-17 (1988) 4. W. Witvrouw, P. Van de Poel, H. Bruyninckx, J. De Schutter: ROSI: A task specification and simulation tool for force-sensor-based robot control, Proc. 24th Int. Symp. Indust. Robot., Tokyo (1993), pp. 385-392 5. W. Witvrouw, P. Van de Poel, J. De Schutter: COMRADE: Compliant motion research and development environment, Proc. 3rd IFAC/IFIP Workshop on Algorithms and Architecture for Real-Time Control. Ostend (1995), pp. 81-87 6. H. Bruyninckx, S. Dutre, J. De Schutter: Peg-on-hole, a model-based solution to peg and hole alignment, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. (ICRA), Nagoya (1995), pp. 1919-1924 7. M. Nuttin, H. Van Brussel: Learning the peg-into-hole assembly operation with a connectionist reinforcement technique, Comput. Ind. 33(1), 101-109 (1997)

Chapter 46 — Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

Cyrill Stachniss, John J. Leonard and Sebastian Thrun

This chapter provides a comprehensive introduction in to the simultaneous localization and mapping problem, better known in its abbreviated form as SLAM. SLAM addresses the main perception problem of a robot navigating an unknown environment. While navigating the environment, the robot seeks to acquire a map thereof, and at the same time it wishes to localize itself using its map. The use of SLAM problems can be motivated in two different ways: one might be interested in detailed environment models, or one might seek to maintain an accurate sense of a mobile robot’s location. SLAM serves both of these purposes.

We review the three major paradigms from which many published methods for SLAM are derived: (1) the extended Kalman filter (EKF); (2) particle filtering; and (3) graph optimization. We also review recent work in three-dimensional (3-D) SLAM using visual and red green blue distance-sensors (RGB-D), and close with a discussion of open research problems in robotic mapping.

Pose graph compression for laser-based SLAM

Author  Cyrill Stachniss

Video ID : 449

This video illustrates pose graph compression, a technique for achieving long-term SLAM, as discussed in Chap. 46.5, Springer Handbook of Robotics, 2nd edn (2016). Reference: H. Kretzschmar, C. Stachniss: Information-theoretic compression of pose graphs for laser-based SLAM, Int. J. Robot. Res. 31(11), 1219--1230 (2012).

Chapter 69 — Physical Human-Robot Interaction

Sami Haddadin and Elizabeth Croft

Over the last two decades, the foundations for physical human–robot interaction (pHRI) have evolved from successful developments in mechatronics, control, and planning, leading toward safer lightweight robot designs and interaction control schemes that advance beyond the current capacities of existing high-payload and highprecision position-controlled industrial robots. Based on their ability to sense physical interaction, render compliant behavior along the robot structure, plan motions that respect human preferences, and generate interaction plans for collaboration and coaction with humans, these novel robots have opened up novel and unforeseen application domains, and have advanced the field of human safety in robotics.

This chapter gives an overview on the state of the art in pHRI as of the date of publication. First, the advances in human safety are outlined, addressing topics in human injury analysis in robotics and safety standards for pHRI. Then, the foundations of human-friendly robot design, including the development of lightweight and intrinsically flexible force/torque-controlled machines together with the required perception abilities for interaction are introduced. Subsequently, motionplanning techniques for human environments, including the domains of biomechanically safe, risk-metric-based, human-aware planning are covered. Finally, the rather recent problem of interaction planning is summarized, including the issues of collaborative action planning, the definition of the interaction planning problem, and an introduction to robot reflexes and reactive control architecture for pHRI.

Human-robot interactions

Author   J.Y.S. Luh, Shuyi Hu

Video ID : 613

In human-robot cooperative tasks, the robot is required to memorize different trajectories for different assignments and to automatically retrieve a proper one from them in real-time for the robot to follow when any assignment is repeated as, e.g., when carrying a rigid object jointly by a human and a robot. To start the task, the human leads the robot along a suitable trajectory and thereby achieves the desired goal. For every new task, the human is required to lead the robot. During the process, the trajectories are recorded and stored in memory as "skillful trajectories" for later use. Reference: J.Y.S. Luh, S. Hu: Interactions and motions in human-robot coordination, Proc. IEEE Int. Robot. Autom. (ICRA), Detroit (1999), Vol. 4, pp. 3171 – 3176; doi: 10.1109/ROBOT.1999.774081.