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Chapter 69 — Physical Human-Robot Interaction

Sami Haddadin and Elizabeth Croft

Over the last two decades, the foundations for physical human–robot interaction (pHRI) have evolved from successful developments in mechatronics, control, and planning, leading toward safer lightweight robot designs and interaction control schemes that advance beyond the current capacities of existing high-payload and highprecision position-controlled industrial robots. Based on their ability to sense physical interaction, render compliant behavior along the robot structure, plan motions that respect human preferences, and generate interaction plans for collaboration and coaction with humans, these novel robots have opened up novel and unforeseen application domains, and have advanced the field of human safety in robotics.

This chapter gives an overview on the state of the art in pHRI as of the date of publication. First, the advances in human safety are outlined, addressing topics in human injury analysis in robotics and safety standards for pHRI. Then, the foundations of human-friendly robot design, including the development of lightweight and intrinsically flexible force/torque-controlled machines together with the required perception abilities for interaction are introduced. Subsequently, motionplanning techniques for human environments, including the domains of biomechanically safe, risk-metric-based, human-aware planning are covered. Finally, the rather recent problem of interaction planning is summarized, including the issues of collaborative action planning, the definition of the interaction planning problem, and an introduction to robot reflexes and reactive control architecture for pHRI.

Dancing with Juliet

Author  Oussama Khatib, Kyong-Sok Chang, Oliver Brock, Kazuhito Yokoi, Arancha Casal, Robert Holmberg

Video ID : 820

This video presents experiments in human-robot interaction using the Stanford Mobile Manipulator platforms. Each platform consists of a Puma 560 manipulator mounted on a holonomic mobile base. The experiments shown in this video are the results of the implementation of various methodologies developed for establishing the basic autonomous capabilities needed for robot operations in human environments. The integration of mobility and manipulation is based on a task-oriented control strategy which provides the user with two basic control primitives: end-effector task control and platform self-posture control.

A control strategy for human-friendly robots

Author   Jochen Heinzmann, Jon Kieffer, Alexander Zelinsky

Video ID : 611

The video shows the basic behavior of the system: A zero-gravity simulation with a Barrett Whole Arm Manipulator (WAM), a lightweight, 7-DOF robot driven by cable drives. The zero-G module applies the appropriate motor torques to counteract the gravity effects. The psychological impression is that the robot is completely passive although considerable forces are required for the gravity compensation. The robot is slowed down by friction only. In the second part of the video, the gravity constant is increased by 60%. This causes the robot to float up into a vertical configuration, as if the robot would be mounted upside down. (Video Proceedings of the Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. (ICRA), 1999)

Chapter 63 — Medical Robotics and Computer-Integrated Surgery

Russell H. Taylor, Arianna Menciassi, Gabor Fichtinger, Paolo Fiorini and Paolo Dario

The growth of medical robotics since the mid- 1980s has been striking. From a few initial efforts in stereotactic brain surgery, orthopaedics, endoscopic surgery, microsurgery, and other areas, the field has expanded to include commercially marketed, clinically deployed systems, and a robust and exponentially expanding research community. This chapter will discuss some major themes and illustrate them with examples from current and past research. Further reading providing a more comprehensive review of this rapidly expanding field is suggested in Sect. 63.4.

Medical robotsmay be classified in many ways: by manipulator design (e.g., kinematics, actuation); by level of autonomy (e.g., preprogrammed versus teleoperation versus constrained cooperative control), by targeted anatomy or technique (e.g., cardiac, intravascular, percutaneous, laparoscopic, microsurgical); or intended operating environment (e.g., in-scanner, conventional operating room). In this chapter, we have chosen to focus on the role of medical robots within the context of larger computer-integrated systems including presurgical planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative assessment and follow-up.

First, we introduce basic concepts of computerintegrated surgery, discuss critical factors affecting the eventual deployment and acceptance of medical robots, and introduce the basic system paradigms of surgical computer-assisted planning, execution, monitoring, and assessment (surgical CAD/CAM) and surgical assistance. In subsequent sections, we provide an overview of the technology ofmedical robot systems and discuss examples of our basic system paradigms, with brief additional discussion topics of remote telesurgery and robotic surgical simulators. We conclude with some thoughts on future research directions and provide suggested further reading.

Variable stiffness manipulator based on layer jamming

Author  MIT/Samsung

Video ID : 832

A tubular, variable-stiffness structure designed for establishing a guide channel for single-port surgery. The thin-layered materials enables jamming stiffness more effectively in a very limited space.

Chapter 11 — Robots with Flexible Elements

Alessandro De Luca and Wayne J. Book

Design issues, dynamic modeling, trajectory planning, and feedback control problems are presented for robot manipulators having components with mechanical flexibility, either concentrated at the joints or distributed along the links. The chapter is divided accordingly into two main parts. Similarities or differences between the two types of flexibility are pointed out wherever appropriate.

For robots with flexible joints, the dynamic model is derived in detail by following a Lagrangian approach and possible simplified versions are discussed. The problem of computing the nominal torques that produce a desired robot motion is then solved. Regulation and trajectory tracking tasks are addressed by means of linear and nonlinear feedback control designs.

For robots with flexible links, relevant factors that lead to the consideration of distributed flexibility are analyzed. Dynamic models are presented, based on the treatment of flexibility through lumped elements, transfer matrices, or assumed modes. Several specific issues are then highlighted, including the selection of sensors, the model order used for control design, and the generation of effective commands that reduce or eliminate residual vibrations in rest-to-rest maneuvers. Feedback control alternatives are finally discussed.

In each of the two parts of this chapter, a section is devoted to the illustration of the original references and to further readings on the subject.

Trajectory generation and control for a KUKA IR 161/60 robot

Author  Joris De Schutter

Video ID : 770

This ICRA 1992 video shows the performance obtained with two simple modifications of a standard robot controller for a KUKA IR 161/60 industrial robot, namely improved trajectory generation and control of the first joint bases on a flexible joint model. At very high velocities and accelerations, there is a significant difference between the flexible controller and a classical PID controller. A nonlinear flexible controller implemented for links 2 and 3 improves the static and dynamic accuracy of the robot. Reference: J. Swevers, D. Torfs, M. Adams, J. De Schutter, H. Van Brussel: Comparison of control algorithms for flexible joint robots implemented on a Kuka IR 161/60 industrial robot, 5th Int. Conf. Adv. Robot., Pisa (1991), pp. 120-125; doi: 10.1109/ICAR.1991.240465

Chapter 17 — Limbed Systems

Shuuji Kajita and Christian Ott

A limbed system is a mobile robot with a body, legs and arms. First, its general design process is discussed in Sect. 17.1. Then we consider issues of conceptual design and observe designs of various existing robots in Sect. 17.2. As an example in detail, the design of a humanoid robot HRP-4C is shown in Sect. 17.3. To design a limbed system of good performance, it is important to take into account of actuation and control, like gravity compensation, limit cycle dynamics, template models, and backdrivable actuation. These are discussed in Sect. 17.4.

In Sect. 17.5, we overview divergence of limbed systems. We see odd legged walkers, leg–wheel hybrid robots, leg–arm hybrid robots, tethered walking robots, and wall-climbing robots. To compare limbed systems of different configurations,we can use performance indices such as the gait sensitivity norm, the Froude number, and the specific resistance, etc., which are introduced in Sect. 17.6.

Linear inverted pendulum mode

Author  Shuuji Kajita

Video ID : 512

Demonstration of the linear inverted pendulum mode (LIPM) and its application for biped walking control. This biped robot with parallel link legs was developed by Dr. Kajita and Dr. Tani.

Chapter 62 — Intelligent Vehicles

Alberto Broggi, Alex Zelinsky, Ümit Özgüner and Christian Laugier

This chapter describes the emerging robotics application field of intelligent vehicles – motor vehicles that have autonomous functions and capabilities. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 62.1 provides a motivation for why the development of intelligent vehicles is important, a brief history of the field, and the potential benefits of the technology. Section 62.2 describes the technologies that enable intelligent vehicles to sense vehicle, environment, and driver state, work with digital maps and satellite navigation, and communicate with intelligent transportation infrastructure. Section 62.3 describes the challenges and solutions associated with road scene understanding – a key capability for all intelligent vehicles. Section 62.4 describes advanced driver assistance systems, which use the robotics and sensing technologies described earlier to create new safety and convenience systems for motor vehicles, such as collision avoidance, lane keeping, and parking assistance. Section 62.5 describes driver monitoring technologies that are being developed to mitigate driver fatigue, inattention, and impairment. Section 62.6 describes fully autonomous intelligent vehicles systems that have been developed and deployed. The chapter is concluded in Sect. 62.7 with a discussion of future prospects, while Sect. 62.8 provides references to further reading and additional resources.

Driver fatigue and inattention

Author  Alberto Broggi, Alexander Zelinsky, Ümit Ozgüner, Christian Laugier

Video ID : 840

This video demonstrates real-time driver inattention and distraction, including that caused fatigue. The system uses a monocular vision system and infrared pods to achieve robust operation in all lighting conditions.

Chapter 46 — Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

Cyrill Stachniss, John J. Leonard and Sebastian Thrun

This chapter provides a comprehensive introduction in to the simultaneous localization and mapping problem, better known in its abbreviated form as SLAM. SLAM addresses the main perception problem of a robot navigating an unknown environment. While navigating the environment, the robot seeks to acquire a map thereof, and at the same time it wishes to localize itself using its map. The use of SLAM problems can be motivated in two different ways: one might be interested in detailed environment models, or one might seek to maintain an accurate sense of a mobile robot’s location. SLAM serves both of these purposes.

We review the three major paradigms from which many published methods for SLAM are derived: (1) the extended Kalman filter (EKF); (2) particle filtering; and (3) graph optimization. We also review recent work in three-dimensional (3-D) SLAM using visual and red green blue distance-sensors (RGB-D), and close with a discussion of open research problems in robotic mapping.

MonoSLAM: Real-time single camera SLAM

Author  Andrew Davison

Video ID : 453

This video describes MonoSLAM, an influential early real-time, single-camera, visual SLAM system, described in Chap. 46.4, Springer Handbook of Robotics, 2nd edn (2016). Reference: A.J. Davison, I. Reid, N. Molton, O. Stasse: MonoSLAM: Real-time single camera SLAM, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intel. 29(6), 1052-1067 (2007).

Chapter 64 — Rehabilitation and Health Care Robotics

H.F. Machiel Van der Loos, David J. Reinkensmeyer and Eugenio Guglielmelli

The field of rehabilitation robotics considers robotic systems that 1) provide therapy for persons seeking to recover their physical, social, communication, or cognitive function, and/or that 2) assist persons who have a chronic disability to accomplish activities of daily living. This chapter will discuss these two main domains and provide descriptions of the major achievements of the field over its short history and chart out the challenges to come. Specifically, after providing background information on demographics (Sect. 64.1.2) and history (Sect. 64.1.3) of the field, Sect. 64.2 describes physical therapy and exercise training robots, and Sect. 64.3 describes robotic aids for people with disabilities. Section 64.4 then presents recent advances in smart prostheses and orthoses that are related to rehabilitation robotics. Finally, Sect. 64.5 provides an overview of recent work in diagnosis and monitoring for rehabilitation as well as other health-care issues. The reader is referred to Chap. 73 for cognitive rehabilitation robotics and to Chap. 65 for robotic smart home technologies, which are often considered assistive technologies for persons with disabilities. At the conclusion of the present chapter, the reader will be familiar with the history of rehabilitation robotics and its primary accomplishments, and will understand the challenges the field may face in the future as it seeks to improve health care and the well being of persons with disabilities.

MIT Manus robotic therapy robot and other robots from the MIT group

Author  Hermano Krebs

Video ID : 496

MIT Manus is one of the first and most-widely-tested, rehabilitation-therapy robots, and is now a commercial product sold by Interactive Motion Technologies. It is a two-joint robot arm that assists and measures planar reaching movements.

The MIME rtehabilitation-therapy robot

Author  Peter Lum,Machiel Van der Loos, Chuck Burgar

Video ID : 495

The 6-DOF MIME robot assisting the left arm in unilateral and bimanual modes. In the unilateral mode, the robot provides end-point tunnel guidance toward the target. In bimanual mode, movement of the right arm is measured with a 6-DOF digitizer, and the robot assists the left arm in performing mirror-image movements.

Chapter 63 — Medical Robotics and Computer-Integrated Surgery

Russell H. Taylor, Arianna Menciassi, Gabor Fichtinger, Paolo Fiorini and Paolo Dario

The growth of medical robotics since the mid- 1980s has been striking. From a few initial efforts in stereotactic brain surgery, orthopaedics, endoscopic surgery, microsurgery, and other areas, the field has expanded to include commercially marketed, clinically deployed systems, and a robust and exponentially expanding research community. This chapter will discuss some major themes and illustrate them with examples from current and past research. Further reading providing a more comprehensive review of this rapidly expanding field is suggested in Sect. 63.4.

Medical robotsmay be classified in many ways: by manipulator design (e.g., kinematics, actuation); by level of autonomy (e.g., preprogrammed versus teleoperation versus constrained cooperative control), by targeted anatomy or technique (e.g., cardiac, intravascular, percutaneous, laparoscopic, microsurgical); or intended operating environment (e.g., in-scanner, conventional operating room). In this chapter, we have chosen to focus on the role of medical robots within the context of larger computer-integrated systems including presurgical planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative assessment and follow-up.

First, we introduce basic concepts of computerintegrated surgery, discuss critical factors affecting the eventual deployment and acceptance of medical robots, and introduce the basic system paradigms of surgical computer-assisted planning, execution, monitoring, and assessment (surgical CAD/CAM) and surgical assistance. In subsequent sections, we provide an overview of the technology ofmedical robot systems and discuss examples of our basic system paradigms, with brief additional discussion topics of remote telesurgery and robotic surgical simulators. We conclude with some thoughts on future research directions and provide suggested further reading.

SPORT system by Titan Medical

Author  Titan Medical Inc.

Video ID : 826

Robot for single-port surgery produced by Titan Medical Inc.