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Chapter 0 — Preface

Bruno Siciliano, Oussama Khatib and Torsten Kröger

The preface of the Second Edition of the Springer Handbook of Robotics contains three videos about the creation of the book and using its multimedia app on mobile devices.

Bruno Siciliano — Interview, February 2017

Author  Bruno Siciliano

Video ID : 846

Bruno Siciliano, Editor of the Springer Handbook of Robotics, gives an interview during the One SpringerNature event in Barcelona on 7 February 2017.

Chapter 47 — Motion Planning and Obstacle Avoidance

Javier Minguez, Florant Lamiraux and Jean-Paul Laumond

This chapter describes motion planning and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots. We will see how the two areas do not share the same modeling background. From the very beginning of motion planning, research has been dominated by computer sciences. Researchers aim at devising well-grounded algorithms with well-understood completeness and exactness properties.

The challenge of this chapter is to present both nonholonomic motion planning (Sects. 47.1–47.6) and obstacle avoidance (Sects. 47.7–47.10) issues. Section 47.11 reviews recent successful approaches that tend to embrace the whole problemofmotion planning and motion control. These approaches benefit from both nonholonomic motion planning and obstacle avoidance methods.

Autonomous navigation of a mobile vehicle

Author  Visp team

Video ID : 713

This video shows the vision-based autonomous navigation of a Cycab mobile vehicle able to avoid obstacles detected by its laser range finder. The reference trajectory is provided as a sequence of previously-acquired key images. Obstacle avoidance is based on a predefined set of circular avoidance trajectories. The best trajectory is selected when an obstacle is detected by the laser scanner.

Chapter 50 — Modeling and Control of Robots on Rough Terrain

Keiji Nagatani, Genya Ishigami and Yoshito Okada

In this chapter, we introduce modeling and control for wheeled mobile robots and tracked vehicles. The target environment is rough terrains, which includes both deformable soil and heaps of rubble. Therefore, the topics are roughly divided into two categories, wheeled robots on deformable soil and tracked vehicles on heaps of rubble.

After providing an overview of this area in Sect. 50.1, a modeling method of wheeled robots on a deformable terrain is introduced in Sect. 50.2. It is based on terramechanics, which is the study focusing on the mechanical properties of natural rough terrain and its response to off-road vehicle, specifically the interaction between wheel/track and soil. In Sect. 50.3, the control of wheeled robots is introduced. A wheeled robot often experiences wheel slippage as well as its sideslip while traversing rough terrain. Therefore, the basic approach in this section is to compensate the slip via steering and driving maneuvers. In the case of navigation on heaps of rubble, tracked vehicles have much advantage. To improve traversability in such challenging environments, some tracked vehicles are equipped with subtracks, and one kinematical modeling method of tracked vehicle on rough terrain is introduced in Sect. 50.4. In addition, stability analysis of such vehicles is introduced in Sect. 50.5. Based on such kinematical model and stability analysis, a sensor-based control of tracked vehicle on rough terrain is introduced in Sect. 50.6. Sect. 50.7 summarizes this chapter.

Experiments of wheeled rovers in a sandbox covered with loose soil

Author  Field Robotics Group, Tohoku University

Video ID : 185

The lunar and Martian surfaces are covered with loose soil, and the wheels of rovers can get stuck on such surfaces. To avoid the problem, it is necessary to conduct thorough investigations into the contact and traction mechanics between the wheels and the soil. To this end, we conduct various experiments using wheeled rovers in a sandbox covered with loose soil. In the experiments, the slippage and sinkage of wheels with various geometries are measured. Based on these experimental observations, analysis and modelling of the motion behavior of wheels ensued.

Chapter 63 — Medical Robotics and Computer-Integrated Surgery

Russell H. Taylor, Arianna Menciassi, Gabor Fichtinger, Paolo Fiorini and Paolo Dario

The growth of medical robotics since the mid- 1980s has been striking. From a few initial efforts in stereotactic brain surgery, orthopaedics, endoscopic surgery, microsurgery, and other areas, the field has expanded to include commercially marketed, clinically deployed systems, and a robust and exponentially expanding research community. This chapter will discuss some major themes and illustrate them with examples from current and past research. Further reading providing a more comprehensive review of this rapidly expanding field is suggested in Sect. 63.4.

Medical robotsmay be classified in many ways: by manipulator design (e.g., kinematics, actuation); by level of autonomy (e.g., preprogrammed versus teleoperation versus constrained cooperative control), by targeted anatomy or technique (e.g., cardiac, intravascular, percutaneous, laparoscopic, microsurgical); or intended operating environment (e.g., in-scanner, conventional operating room). In this chapter, we have chosen to focus on the role of medical robots within the context of larger computer-integrated systems including presurgical planning, intraoperative execution, and postoperative assessment and follow-up.

First, we introduce basic concepts of computerintegrated surgery, discuss critical factors affecting the eventual deployment and acceptance of medical robots, and introduce the basic system paradigms of surgical computer-assisted planning, execution, monitoring, and assessment (surgical CAD/CAM) and surgical assistance. In subsequent sections, we provide an overview of the technology ofmedical robot systems and discuss examples of our basic system paradigms, with brief additional discussion topics of remote telesurgery and robotic surgical simulators. We conclude with some thoughts on future research directions and provide suggested further reading.

Da Vinci surgery on a grape

Author  Edward Hospital, Naperville, Illinois

Video ID : 823

The movie shows the peeling of a grape by using the robotic tools of the Da Vinci robot: Precision, dexterity and motion scaling are impressive.

Chapter 46 — Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

Cyrill Stachniss, John J. Leonard and Sebastian Thrun

This chapter provides a comprehensive introduction in to the simultaneous localization and mapping problem, better known in its abbreviated form as SLAM. SLAM addresses the main perception problem of a robot navigating an unknown environment. While navigating the environment, the robot seeks to acquire a map thereof, and at the same time it wishes to localize itself using its map. The use of SLAM problems can be motivated in two different ways: one might be interested in detailed environment models, or one might seek to maintain an accurate sense of a mobile robot’s location. SLAM serves both of these purposes.

We review the three major paradigms from which many published methods for SLAM are derived: (1) the extended Kalman filter (EKF); (2) particle filtering; and (3) graph optimization. We also review recent work in three-dimensional (3-D) SLAM using visual and red green blue distance-sensors (RGB-D), and close with a discussion of open research problems in robotic mapping.

Graph-based SLAM using TORO

Author  Cyrill Stachniss

Video ID : 446

This video provides an illustration of graph-based SLAM, as described in Chap. 46.3.3, Springer Handbook of Robotics, 2nd edn (2016), using the TORO algorithm. Reference: G. Grisetti, C. Stachniss, S. Grzonka, W. Burgard. A tree parameterization for efficiently computing maximum likelihood maps using gradient descent, Proc. Robot. Sci. Syst. (RSS), Atlanta (2007)

Chapter 70 — Human-Robot Augmentation

Massimo Bergamasco and Hugh Herr

The development of robotic systems capable of sharing with humans the load of heavy tasks has been one of the primary objectives in robotics research. At present, in order to fulfil such an objective, a strong interest in the robotics community is collected by the so-called wearable robots, a class of robotics systems that are worn and directly controlled by the human operator. Wearable robots, together with powered orthoses that exploit robotic components and control strategies, can represent an immediate resource also for allowing humans to restore manipulation and/or walking functionalities.

The present chapter deals with wearable robotics systems capable of providing different levels of functional and/or operational augmentation to the human beings for specific functions or tasks. Prostheses, powered orthoses, and exoskeletons are described for upper limb, lower limb, and whole body structures. State-of-theart devices together with their functionalities and main components are presented for each class of wearable system. Critical design issues and open research aspects are reported.

Hand exoskeletons

Author  Massimo Bergamasco

Video ID : 150

The video shows the hand exoskeletons, highlighting the mechanism adopted for implementing the finger kinematic and the specifically-designed force sensors integrated into the mechanical structure.

Chapter 72 — Social Robotics

Cynthia Breazeal, Kerstin Dautenhahn and Takayuki Kanda

This chapter surveys some of the principal research trends in Social Robotics and its application to human–robot interaction (HRI). Social (or Sociable) robots are designed to interact with people in a natural, interpersonal manner – often to achieve positive outcomes in diverse applications such as education, health, quality of life, entertainment, communication, and tasks requiring collaborative teamwork. The long-term goal of creating social robots that are competent and capable partners for people is quite a challenging task. They will need to be able to communicate naturally with people using both verbal and nonverbal signals. They will need to engage us not only on a cognitive level, but on an emotional level as well in order to provide effective social and task-related support to people. They will need a wide range of socialcognitive skills and a theory of other minds to understand human behavior, and to be intuitively understood by people. A deep understanding of human intelligence and behavior across multiple dimensions (i. e., cognitive, affective, physical, social, etc.) is necessary in order to design robots that can successfully play a beneficial role in the daily lives of people. This requires a multidisciplinary approach where the design of social robot technologies and methodologies are informed by robotics, artificial intelligence, psychology, neuroscience, human factors, design, anthropology, and more.

Learning how to be a learning companion for children

Author  Cynthia Breazeal

Video ID : 560

This video demonstration describes a project whereby we train a policy via learning-by-demonstration for a social robot to serve as a learning companion for young children during free-form educational play. Training data was captured during a Wizard-of-Oz paradigm where the robot played the color-mixing game app with 183 children. Once the model was trained on this data, we did a human-participant study with 85 children to compare the behavior and efficacy of the autonomous robot versus a Wizard-of-Oz-controlled robot. We also compared the children's behavior to just playing the game app without a robot learning companion. We found that the presence of the robot learning companion resulted in deeper exploration of the subject matter of the app (color mixing) and more behaviors targeted to this activity (e.g., there was more random tapping of the app when the robot was not present). The autonomous robot's behavior was not statistically different from the Wizard-of-Oz-controlled robot.

Chapter 55 — Space Robotics

Kazuya Yoshida, Brian Wilcox, Gerd Hirzinger and Roberto Lampariello

In the space community, any unmanned spacecraft can be called a robotic spacecraft. However, Space Robots are considered to be more capable devices that can facilitate manipulation, assembling, or servicing functions in orbit as assistants to astronauts, or to extend the areas and abilities of exploration on remote planets as surrogates for human explorers.

In this chapter, a concise digest of the historical overview and technical advances of two distinct types of space robotic systems, orbital robots and surface robots, is provided. In particular, Sect. 55.1 describes orbital robots, and Sect. 55.2 describes surface robots. In Sect. 55.3, the mathematical modeling of the dynamics and control using reference equations are discussed. Finally, advanced topics for future space exploration missions are addressed in Sect. 55.4.

DLR predictive simulation compensating 6-second round-trip delay

Author  Gerd Hirzinger, Klaus Landzettel

Video ID : 331

This brief video shows results of the ROTEX experiment on the fully automatic grasping of a small free-floating cube with flattened edges by the ground computers which evaluated the stereo images from the robot gripper, estimated the motion, predicted it for the 6 s communication round-trip delay, and sent up the commands for grasping. In the view are the results of predictive simulation (right-hand side) and the delayed true-camera measurements (left-hand side).

Chapter 21 — Actuators for Soft Robotics

Alin Albu-Schäffer and Antonio Bicchi

Although we do not know as yet how robots of the future will look like exactly, most of us are sure that they will not resemble the heavy, bulky, rigid machines dangerously moving around in old fashioned industrial automation. There is a growing consensus, in the research community as well as in expectations from the public, that robots of the next generation will be physically compliant and adaptable machines, closely interacting with humans and moving safely, smoothly and efficiently - in other terms, robots will be soft.

This chapter discusses the design, modeling and control of actuators for the new generation of soft robots, which can replace conventional actuators in applications where rigidity is not the first and foremost concern in performance. The chapter focuses on the technology, modeling, and control of lumped parameters of soft robotics, that is, systems of discrete, interconnected, and compliant elements. Distributed parameters, snakelike and continuum soft robotics, are presented in Chap. 20, while Chap. 23 discusses in detail the biomimetic motivations that are often behind soft robotics.

CompAct™ robotics technology

Author  Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT)

Video ID : 471

Brief video showing CompAct™ actuation units and arm, demonstrating the effects of its core variable damping (VPDA) technology. Key features of these units include: 1. intrinsic safety (lightweight and elastic transmission) meant for safe human-robot collaboration; 2. precision, thanks to the variable damping transmission, protected by international patents; 3. ease of use (no need for experts to program it, easy to reprogram, flexible to use).

Chapter 54 — Industrial Robotics

Martin Hägele, Klas Nilsson, J. Norberto Pires and Rainer Bischoff

Much of the technology that makes robots reliable, human friendly, and adaptable for numerous applications has emerged from manufacturers of industrial robots. With an estimated installation base in 2014 of about 1:5million units, some 171 000 new installations in that year and an annual turnover of the robotics industry estimated to be US$ 32 billion, industrial robots are by far the largest commercial application of robotics technology today.

The foundations for robot motion planning and control were initially developed with industrial applications in mind. These applications deserve special attention in order to understand the origin of robotics science and to appreciate the many unsolved problems that still prevent the wider use of robots in today’s agile manufacturing environments. In this chapter, we present a brief history and descriptions of typical industrial robotics applications and at the same time we address current critical state-of-the-art technological developments. We show how robots with differentmechanisms fit different applications and how applications are further enabled by latest technologies, often adopted from technological fields outside manufacturing automation.

We will first present a brief historical introduction to industrial robotics with a selection of contemporary application examples which at the same time refer to a critical key technology. Then, the basic principles that are used in industrial robotics and a review of programming methods will be presented. We will also introduce the topic of system integration particularly from a data integration point of view. The chapter will be closed with an outlook based on a presentation of some unsolved problems that currently inhibit wider use of industrial robots.

SMErobot D4 "The woodworking assistant"

Author  Martin Haegele

Video ID : 266

Video of demonstrator D4 of SMErobot - The European Robot Initiative for Strengthening the Competitiveness of SMEs in Manufacturing: "The woodworking assistant / Der Schreinerei-Assistent" SMErobot was an Integrated Project within the 6th Framework Programme of the EC to create a new family of SME-suitable robots and to exploit its potentials for competitive SME manufacturing (March 2005 - May 2009). For more details on the project and this welding robot, please also watch the "SMErobot video Coffee Break (English)" with Video ID: 261 as well as the "SMErobot Final Project Video" with Video ID: 262 or visit the respective demonstrator website: