View Chapter

Chapter 20 — Snake-Like and Continuum Robots

Ian D. Walker, Howie Choset and Gregory S. Chirikjian

This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art of snake-like (backbones comprised of many small links) and continuum (continuous backbone) robots. The history of each of these classes of robot is reviewed, focusing on key hardware developments. A review of the existing theory and algorithms for kinematics for both types of robot is presented, followed by a summary ofmodeling of locomotion for snake-like and continuum mechanisms.

Modsnake autonomous pole-climbing

Author  Howie Choset

Video ID : 166

Video of the CMU Modsnake autonomously climbing a pole using LIDAR.

Chapter 67 — Humanoids

Paul Fitzpatrick, Kensuke Harada, Charles C. Kemp, Yoshio Matsumoto, Kazuhito Yokoi and Eiichi Yoshida

Humanoid robots selectively immitate aspects of human form and behavior. Humanoids come in a variety of shapes and sizes, from complete human-size legged robots to isolated robotic heads with human-like sensing and expression. This chapter highlights significant humanoid platforms and achievements, and discusses some of the underlying goals behind this area of robotics. Humanoids tend to require the integration ofmany of the methods covered in detail within other chapters of this handbook, so this chapter focuses on distinctive aspects of humanoid robotics with liberal cross-referencing.

This chapter examines what motivates researchers to pursue humanoid robotics, and provides a taste of the evolution of this field over time. It summarizes work on legged humanoid locomotion, whole-body activities, and approaches to human–robot communication. It concludes with a brief discussion of factors that may influence the future of humanoid robots.

Footstep planning modeled as a whole-body, inverse-kinematic problem (experiment)

Author  Eiichi Yoshida

Video ID : 600

The whole-body, inverse-kinematic motion including locomotion in video 596 has been experimentally validated by using HPR-2 humanoid robot. The challenging motion-planning problem of picking up an object almost between its feet has been successfully solved with the proposed framework.

Chapter 43 — Telerobotics

Günter Niemeyer, Carsten Preusche, Stefano Stramigioli and Dongjun Lee

In this chapter we present an overview of the field of telerobotics with a focus on control aspects. To acknowledge some of the earliest contributions and motivations the field has provided to robotics in general, we begin with a brief historical perspective and discuss some of the challenging applications. Then, after introducing and classifying the various system architectures and control strategies, we emphasize bilateral control and force feedback. This particular area has seen intense research work in the pursuit of telepresence. We also examine some of the emerging efforts, extending telerobotic concepts to unconventional systems and applications. Finally,we suggest some further reading for a closer engagement with the field.

Multi-modal, multi-user telepresence and teleaction system

Author  M. Buss, A. Peer, T. Schauss, N. Stefanov, U. Unterhinninghofen, S. Behrendt, G. Farber, J. Leupold, K. Diepold, F. Keyrouz, M. Sarkis, P. Hinterseer, E. Steinbach, B. Farber, H. Pongrac

Video ID : 321

This video shows a multimodal, multiuser telepresence system, consisting of two teleoperated mobile manipulators, each connected to a stationary or a mobile, multimodal, human telerobotic interface. The multimodal-user feedback consists of 3-D vision, 3-D acoustic, and haptic feedback. A cooperative pipe-repair task was performed by the two teleoperated mobile manipulators. Presented at ICRA 2008.

Chapter 62 — Intelligent Vehicles

Alberto Broggi, Alex Zelinsky, Ümit Özgüner and Christian Laugier

This chapter describes the emerging robotics application field of intelligent vehicles – motor vehicles that have autonomous functions and capabilities. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 62.1 provides a motivation for why the development of intelligent vehicles is important, a brief history of the field, and the potential benefits of the technology. Section 62.2 describes the technologies that enable intelligent vehicles to sense vehicle, environment, and driver state, work with digital maps and satellite navigation, and communicate with intelligent transportation infrastructure. Section 62.3 describes the challenges and solutions associated with road scene understanding – a key capability for all intelligent vehicles. Section 62.4 describes advanced driver assistance systems, which use the robotics and sensing technologies described earlier to create new safety and convenience systems for motor vehicles, such as collision avoidance, lane keeping, and parking assistance. Section 62.5 describes driver monitoring technologies that are being developed to mitigate driver fatigue, inattention, and impairment. Section 62.6 describes fully autonomous intelligent vehicles systems that have been developed and deployed. The chapter is concluded in Sect. 62.7 with a discussion of future prospects, while Sect. 62.8 provides references to further reading and additional resources.

Speed-sign detection

Author  Alberto Broggi, Alexander Zelinsky, Ümit Ozgüner, Christian Laugier

Video ID : 838

This video demonstrates robust speed-sign extraction under variable conditions, i.e., day and night. The system uses the unique radial symmetry detector to achieve robustness.

Chapter 23 — Biomimetic Robots

Kyu-Jin Cho and Robert Wood

Biomimetic robot designs attempt to translate biological principles into engineered systems, replacing more classical engineering solutions in order to achieve a function observed in the natural system. This chapter will focus on mechanism design for bio-inspired robots that replicate key principles from nature with novel engineering solutions. The challenges of biomimetic design include developing a deep understanding of the relevant natural system and translating this understanding into engineering design rules. This often entails the development of novel fabrication and actuation to realize the biomimetic design.

This chapter consists of four sections. In Sect. 23.1, we will define what biomimetic design entails, and contrast biomimetic robots with bio-inspired robots. In Sect. 23.2, we will discuss the fundamental components for developing a biomimetic robot. In Sect. 23.3, we will review detailed biomimetic designs that have been developed for canonical robot locomotion behaviors including flapping-wing flight, jumping, crawling, wall climbing, and swimming. In Sect. 23.4, we will discuss the enabling technologies for these biomimetic designs including material and fabrication.

DASH: Resilient high-speed 16 g hexapedal robot

Author  Paul Birkmeyer, Kevin C. Peterson, Ronald S. Fearing

Video ID : 405

DASH (dynamic autonomous sprawled hexapod) is a resilient high-speed 16 g hexapedal robot. Developed by P. Birkmeyer and R.S. Fearing, Biomimetic Millisystems Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley. Video presented at IEEE/IROS, St. Louis (2009).

Chapter 46 — Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

Cyrill Stachniss, John J. Leonard and Sebastian Thrun

This chapter provides a comprehensive introduction in to the simultaneous localization and mapping problem, better known in its abbreviated form as SLAM. SLAM addresses the main perception problem of a robot navigating an unknown environment. While navigating the environment, the robot seeks to acquire a map thereof, and at the same time it wishes to localize itself using its map. The use of SLAM problems can be motivated in two different ways: one might be interested in detailed environment models, or one might seek to maintain an accurate sense of a mobile robot’s location. SLAM serves both of these purposes.

We review the three major paradigms from which many published methods for SLAM are derived: (1) the extended Kalman filter (EKF); (2) particle filtering; and (3) graph optimization. We also review recent work in three-dimensional (3-D) SLAM using visual and red green blue distance-sensors (RGB-D), and close with a discussion of open research problems in robotic mapping.

Deformation-based loop closure for dense RGB-D SLAM

Author  Thomas Whelan

Video ID : 439

This video shows the integration of SLAM-pose-graph optimization, spatially extended KinectFusion, and deformation-based loop closure in dense RGB-D mapping - integrating several of the capabilities discussed in Chap. 46.3.3 and Chap. 46.4, Springer Handbook of Robotics, 2nd edn (2016). Reference: T. Whelan, M. Kaess, H. Johannsson, M. Fallon, J.J. Leonard, J. McDonald: Real-time large scale dense RGB-D SLAM with volumetric fusion, Int. J. Robot. Res. 34(4-5), 598-626 (2014).

Chapter 30 — Sonar Sensing

Lindsay Kleeman and Roman Kuc

Sonar or ultrasonic sensing uses the propagation of acoustic energy at higher frequencies than normal hearing to extract information from the environment. This chapter presents the fundamentals and physics of sonar sensing for object localization, landmark measurement and classification in robotics applications. The source of sonar artifacts is explained and how they can be dealt with. Different ultrasonic transducer technologies are outlined with their main characteristics highlighted.

Sonar systems are described that range in sophistication from low-cost threshold-based ranging modules to multitransducer multipulse configurations with associated signal processing requirements capable of accurate range and bearing measurement, interference rejection, motion compensation, and target classification. Continuous-transmission frequency-modulated (CTFM) systems are introduced and their ability to improve target sensitivity in the presence of noise is discussed. Various sonar ring designs that provide rapid surrounding environmental coverage are described in conjunction with mapping results. Finally the chapter ends with a discussion of biomimetic sonar, which draws inspiration from animals such as bats and dolphins.

Vergence sonar

Author  Roman Kuc

Video ID : 301

Two conventional Polaroid sonars are oriented away from the sonar axis by a vergence angle of eight degrees and excited simultaneously every 100 ms. Simple logic determines which sonar detects the echo first - indicated by the red LEDs - and when the echoes arrive within a 3 µs window - indicated by the center yellow LED. The video indicates echoes from the ceiling located at 2 m range. The vergence sonar can determine normal incidence within 0.5 degree over a usable beam width of 46 degrees. Reference: R. Kuc: Binaural sonar electronic travel aid provides vibrotactile cues for landmark, reflector motion and surface texture classification, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(10), 1173-1180 (2002).

Chapter 39 — Cooperative Manipulation

Fabrizio Caccavale and Masaru Uchiyama

This chapter is devoted to cooperative manipulation of a common object by means of two or more robotic arms. The chapter opens with a historical overview of the research on cooperativemanipulation, ranging from early 1970s to very recent years. Kinematics and dynamics of robotic arms cooperatively manipulating a tightly grasped rigid object are presented in depth. As for the kinematics and statics, the chosen approach is based on the socalled symmetric formulation; fundamentals of dynamics and reduced-order models for closed kinematic chains are discussed as well. A few special topics, such as the definition of geometrically meaningful cooperative task space variables, the problem of load distribution, and the definition of manipulability ellipsoids, are included to give the reader a complete picture ofmodeling and evaluation methodologies for cooperative manipulators. Then, the chapter presents the main strategies for controlling both the motion of the cooperative system and the interaction forces between the manipulators and the grasped object; in detail, fundamentals of hybrid force/position control, proportional–derivative (PD)-type force/position control schemes, feedback linearization techniques, and impedance control approaches are given. In the last section further reading on advanced topics related to control of cooperative robots is suggested; in detail, advanced nonlinear control strategies are briefly discussed (i. e., intelligent control approaches, synchronization control, decentralized control); also, fundamental results on modeling and control of cooperative systems possessing some degree of flexibility are briefly outlined.

Control of cooperative manipulators in the operational space

Author  Oussama Khatib

Video ID : 70

This video shows a series of experiments on operational space control of cooperative manipulators. Both the virtual linkage and augmented object concepts are experimentally demonstrated, together with cooperative manipulation via multiple mobile arms (Romeo & Juliet).

Chapter 20 — Snake-Like and Continuum Robots

Ian D. Walker, Howie Choset and Gregory S. Chirikjian

This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art of snake-like (backbones comprised of many small links) and continuum (continuous backbone) robots. The history of each of these classes of robot is reviewed, focusing on key hardware developments. A review of the existing theory and algorithms for kinematics for both types of robot is presented, followed by a summary ofmodeling of locomotion for snake-like and continuum mechanisms.

Field experiments with the OctArm continuum manipulator

Author  Ian Walker

Video ID : 157

Video overview of the OctArm continuum manipulator's applications and features.

Chapter 46 — Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

Cyrill Stachniss, John J. Leonard and Sebastian Thrun

This chapter provides a comprehensive introduction in to the simultaneous localization and mapping problem, better known in its abbreviated form as SLAM. SLAM addresses the main perception problem of a robot navigating an unknown environment. While navigating the environment, the robot seeks to acquire a map thereof, and at the same time it wishes to localize itself using its map. The use of SLAM problems can be motivated in two different ways: one might be interested in detailed environment models, or one might seek to maintain an accurate sense of a mobile robot’s location. SLAM serves both of these purposes.

We review the three major paradigms from which many published methods for SLAM are derived: (1) the extended Kalman filter (EKF); (2) particle filtering; and (3) graph optimization. We also review recent work in three-dimensional (3-D) SLAM using visual and red green blue distance-sensors (RGB-D), and close with a discussion of open research problems in robotic mapping.

Sparse pose adjustment

Author  Kurt Konolige

Video ID : 447

This video shows an illustration of pose-graph SLAM optimization, as described in Chap. 46.3.3, Springer Handbook of Robotics, 2nd edn (2016), using sparse pose adjustment. Reference: K. Konolige, G. Grisetti, R. Kümmerle, W. Burgard, B. Limketkai, R. Vincent: Sparse pose adjustment for 2-D mapping, IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. Intel. Robot. Syst. (IROS), Taipei (2010).