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Chapter 43 — Telerobotics

Günter Niemeyer, Carsten Preusche, Stefano Stramigioli and Dongjun Lee

In this chapter we present an overview of the field of telerobotics with a focus on control aspects. To acknowledge some of the earliest contributions and motivations the field has provided to robotics in general, we begin with a brief historical perspective and discuss some of the challenging applications. Then, after introducing and classifying the various system architectures and control strategies, we emphasize bilateral control and force feedback. This particular area has seen intense research work in the pursuit of telepresence. We also examine some of the emerging efforts, extending telerobotic concepts to unconventional systems and applications. Finally,we suggest some further reading for a closer engagement with the field.

Multi-modal, multi-user telepresence and teleaction system

Author  M. Buss, A. Peer, T. Schauss, N. Stefanov, U. Unterhinninghofen, S. Behrendt, G. Farber, J. Leupold, K. Diepold, F. Keyrouz, M. Sarkis, P. Hinterseer, E. Steinbach, B. Farber, H. Pongrac

Video ID : 321

This video shows a multimodal, multiuser telepresence system, consisting of two teleoperated mobile manipulators, each connected to a stationary or a mobile, multimodal, human telerobotic interface. The multimodal-user feedback consists of 3-D vision, 3-D acoustic, and haptic feedback. A cooperative pipe-repair task was performed by the two teleoperated mobile manipulators. Presented at ICRA 2008.

Chapter 36 — Motion for Manipulation Tasks

James Kuffner and Jing Xiao

This chapter serves as an introduction to Part D by giving an overview of motion generation and control strategies in the context of robotic manipulation tasks. Automatic control ranging from the abstract, high-level task specification down to fine-grained feedback at the task interface are considered. Some of the important issues include modeling of the interfaces between the robot and the environment at the different time scales of motion and incorporating sensing and feedback. Manipulation planning is introduced as an extension to the basic motion planning problem, which can be modeled as a hybrid system of continuous configuration spaces arising from the act of grasping and moving parts in the environment. The important example of assembly motion is discussed through the analysis of contact states and compliant motion control. Finally, methods aimed at integrating global planning with state feedback control are summarized.

The Mobipulator

Author  Siddhartha Srinivasa et al.

Video ID : 367

The video shows a dual-differential drive robot that uses its wheels for both manipulation and locomotion. The front wheels move objects by vibrating asymmetrically while the rear wheels help to move the robot and the object around the environment.

Chapter 34 — Visual Servoing

François Chaumette, Seth Hutchinson and Peter Corke

This chapter introduces visual servo control, using computer vision data in the servo loop to control the motion of a robot. We first describe the basic techniques that are by now well established in the field. We give a general overview of the formulation of the visual servo control problem, and describe the two archetypal visual servo control schemes: image-based and pose-based visual servo control. We then discuss performance and stability issues that pertain to these two schemes, motivating advanced techniques. Of the many advanced techniques that have been developed, we discuss 2.5-D, hybrid, partitioned, and switched approaches. Having covered a variety of control schemes, we deal with target tracking and controlling motion directly in the joint space and extensions to under-actuated ground and aerial robots. We conclude by describing applications of visual servoing in robotics.

2.5-D VS on a 6 DOF robot arm (2)

Author  Francois Chaumette, Seth Hutchinson, Peter Corke

Video ID : 65

This video shows a 2.5-D VS on a 6 DOF robot arm with (c*^t_c, x_g, theta u_z) as visual features. It corresponds to the results depicted in Figure 34.13.

Chapter 66 — Robotics Competitions and Challenges

Daniele Nardi, Jonathan Roberts, Manuela Veloso and Luke Fletcher

This chapter explores the use of competitions to accelerate robotics research and promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. We argue that the field of robotics is particularly well suited to innovation through competitions. Two broad categories of robot competition are used to frame the discussion: human-inspired competitions and task-based challenges. Human-inspired robot competitions, of which the majority are sports contests, quickly move through platform development to focus on problemsolving and test through game play. Taskbased challenges attempt to attract participants by presenting a high aim for a robotic system. The contest can then be tuned, as required, to maintain motivation and ensure that the progress is made. Three case studies of robot competitions are presented, namely robot soccer, the UAV challenge, and the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) grand challenges. The case studies serve to explore from the point of view of organizers and participants, the benefits and limitations of competitions, and what makes a good robot competition.

This chapter ends with some concluding remarks on the natural convergence of humaninspired competitions and task-based challenges in the promotion of STEM education, research, and vocations.

Multirobot teamwork in the CMDragons RoboCup SSL team

Author  Manuela Veloso

Video ID : 387

In this video, we can see the coordination and passing strategy as an example of the play of the RoboCup small-size league (SSL), in this case, the CMDragons team from Veloso and her students, at Carnegie Mellon University. The RoboCup SSL has an overhead camera connected to an offboard computer which plans and commands the robots: The perception, planning, and actuation cycle is fully autonomous.

Chapter 44 — Networked Robots

Dezhen Song, Ken Goldberg and Nak-Young Chong

As of 2013, almost all robots have access to computer networks that offer extensive computing, memory, and other resources that can dramatically improve performance. The underlying enabling framework is the focus of this chapter: networked robots. Networked robots trace their origin to telerobots or remotely controlled robots. Telerobots are widely used to explore undersea terrains and outer space, to defuse bombs and to clean up hazardous waste. Until 1994, telerobots were accessible only to trained and trusted experts through dedicated communication channels. This chapter will describe relevant network technology, the history of networked robots as it evolves from teleoperation to cloud robotics, properties of networked robots, how to build a networked robot, example systems. Later in the chapter, we focus on the recent progress on cloud robotics, and topics for future research.

Teleoperation of a mini-excavator

Author  Keyvan Hashtrudi-Zaad, Simon P. DiMaio, Septimiu E. Salcudean

Video ID : 82

Teleoperation of a mini-excavator over the internet using a virtual master environment. This video is illustrates how a virtual-reality-based interface can assist users to comprehend robotic states. (See m. 44.4.3 of the Springer Handbook of Robotics, 2nd ed (2006) for details).

Chapter 11 — Robots with Flexible Elements

Alessandro De Luca and Wayne J. Book

Design issues, dynamic modeling, trajectory planning, and feedback control problems are presented for robot manipulators having components with mechanical flexibility, either concentrated at the joints or distributed along the links. The chapter is divided accordingly into two main parts. Similarities or differences between the two types of flexibility are pointed out wherever appropriate.

For robots with flexible joints, the dynamic model is derived in detail by following a Lagrangian approach and possible simplified versions are discussed. The problem of computing the nominal torques that produce a desired robot motion is then solved. Regulation and trajectory tracking tasks are addressed by means of linear and nonlinear feedback control designs.

For robots with flexible links, relevant factors that lead to the consideration of distributed flexibility are analyzed. Dynamic models are presented, based on the treatment of flexibility through lumped elements, transfer matrices, or assumed modes. Several specific issues are then highlighted, including the selection of sensors, the model order used for control design, and the generation of effective commands that reduce or eliminate residual vibrations in rest-to-rest maneuvers. Feedback control alternatives are finally discussed.

In each of the two parts of this chapter, a section is devoted to the illustration of the original references and to further readings on the subject.

PID response to impulse in presence of link flexibility

Author  Wayne Book

Video ID : 780

A laboratory gantry robot with a final flexible link is excited by an external impulse disturbance. The video shows the very low damping of the flexible link under PID joint control. This is one of two coordinated videos, the other showing the same experiment under state feedback control. Reference: B. Post: Robust State Estimation for the Control of Flexible Robotic Manipulators, Dissertation, School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (2013)

Chapter 76 — Evolutionary Robotics

Stefano Nolfi, Josh Bongard, Phil Husbands and Dario Floreano

Evolutionary Robotics is a method for automatically generating artificial brains and morphologies of autonomous robots. This approach is useful both for investigating the design space of robotic applications and for testing scientific hypotheses of biological mechanisms and processes. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods and results of Evolutionary Robotics with robots of different shapes, dimensions, and operation features. We consider both simulated and physical robots with special consideration to the transfer between the two worlds.

Evolution of visually-guided behaviour on Sussex gantry robot

Author  Phil Husbands

Video ID : 371

Behaviour evolved in the real world on the Sussex gantry robot in 1994. Controllers (evolved neural networks plus visual sampling morphology) are automatically evaluated on the actual robot. The required behaviour is a shape discrimination task: to move to the triangle, while ignoring the rectangle, under very noisy lighting conditions.

Chapter 45 — World Modeling

Wolfram Burgard, Martial Hebert and Maren Bennewitz

In this chapter we describe popular ways to represent the environment of a mobile robot. For indoor environments, which are often stored using two-dimensional representations, we discuss occupancy grids, line maps, topologicalmaps, and landmark-based representations. Each of these techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages. Whilst occupancy grid maps allow for quick access and can efficiently be updated, line maps are more compact. Also landmark-basedmaps can efficiently be updated and maintained, however, they do not readily support navigation tasks such as path planning like topological representations do.

Additionally, we discuss approaches suited for outdoor terrain modeling. In outdoor environments, the flat-surface assumption underling many mapping techniques for indoor environments is no longer valid. A very popular approach in this context are elevation and variants maps, which store the surface of the terrain over a regularly spaced grid. Alternatives to such maps are point clouds, meshes, or three-dimensional grids, which provide a greater flexibility but have higher storage demands.

Service-robot navigation in urban environments

Author  Christian Siagian

Video ID : 270

This video presents the navigation system of the Beobot service robot of the iLab, University of Southern California (USC). Beobot's task is to fulfill services in urban-like environments, especially those involving long-range travel. The robot uses a topological map for global localization based on acquired images.

Chapter 23 — Biomimetic Robots

Kyu-Jin Cho and Robert Wood

Biomimetic robot designs attempt to translate biological principles into engineered systems, replacing more classical engineering solutions in order to achieve a function observed in the natural system. This chapter will focus on mechanism design for bio-inspired robots that replicate key principles from nature with novel engineering solutions. The challenges of biomimetic design include developing a deep understanding of the relevant natural system and translating this understanding into engineering design rules. This often entails the development of novel fabrication and actuation to realize the biomimetic design.

This chapter consists of four sections. In Sect. 23.1, we will define what biomimetic design entails, and contrast biomimetic robots with bio-inspired robots. In Sect. 23.2, we will discuss the fundamental components for developing a biomimetic robot. In Sect. 23.3, we will review detailed biomimetic designs that have been developed for canonical robot locomotion behaviors including flapping-wing flight, jumping, crawling, wall climbing, and swimming. In Sect. 23.4, we will discuss the enabling technologies for these biomimetic designs including material and fabrication.

Mini-Whegs™

Author  Jeremy M. Morrey, Bram Lambrecht, Andrew D. Horchler, Roy E. Ritzmann, Roger D. Quinn

Video ID : 401

The video describes a new biologically inspired robot series called Mini-Whegs™. These 8-9 cm long robots can run at sustained speeds of over 10 body lengths per second and navigate in challenging terrain.

Chapter 26 — Flying Robots

Stefan Leutenegger, Christoph Hürzeler, Amanda K. Stowers, Kostas Alexis, Markus W. Achtelik, David Lentink, Paul Y. Oh and Roland Siegwart

Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) have drawn increasing attention recently, owing to advancements in related research, technology, and applications. While having been deployed successfully in military scenarios for decades, civil use cases have lately been tackled by the robotics research community.

This chapter overviews the core elements of this highly interdisciplinary field; the reader is guided through the design process of aerial robots for various applications starting with a qualitative characterization of different types of UAS. Design and modeling are closely related, forming a typically iterative process of drafting and analyzing the related properties. Therefore, we overview aerodynamics and dynamics, as well as their application to fixed-wing, rotary-wing, and flapping-wing UAS, including related analytical tools and practical guidelines. Respecting use-case-specific requirements and core autonomous robot demands, we finally provide guidelines to related system integration challenges.

Robotic insects make first controlled flight

Author  Robert J. Wood

Video ID : 697

First flight results of the RoboBee project.