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Chapter 36 — Motion for Manipulation Tasks

James Kuffner and Jing Xiao

This chapter serves as an introduction to Part D by giving an overview of motion generation and control strategies in the context of robotic manipulation tasks. Automatic control ranging from the abstract, high-level task specification down to fine-grained feedback at the task interface are considered. Some of the important issues include modeling of the interfaces between the robot and the environment at the different time scales of motion and incorporating sensing and feedback. Manipulation planning is introduced as an extension to the basic motion planning problem, which can be modeled as a hybrid system of continuous configuration spaces arising from the act of grasping and moving parts in the environment. The important example of assembly motion is discussed through the analysis of contact states and compliant motion control. Finally, methods aimed at integrating global planning with state feedback control are summarized.

Reducing uncertainty in robotics surface-assembly tasks

Author  Jing Xiao et al.

Video ID : 356

This video demonstrates how surface assembly strategies with pose estimation can be used to overcome pose uncertainties. The assembly path is updated based on the newly estimated values of parameters after the compliant exploratory move. In this way, the robot is able to successfully overcome disparities between the nominal and the actual poses of the objects to accomplish the assembly. No force sensor is used.

Autonomous continuum grasping

Author  Jing Xiao et al.

Video ID : 357

The video shows three example tasks: (1) autonomous grasping and lifting operation of an object, (2) autonomous obstacle avoidance operation, and (3) autonomous operation of grasping and lifting an object while avoiding another object. Note that the grasped object was lifted about 2 inches off the table.

Robotic assembly of emergency-stop buttons

Author  Andreas Stolt et al.

Video ID : 358

The video presents a framework for dual-arm robotic assembly of stop buttons utilizing force/torque sensing under the fixture and force control.

Mesoscale manipulation: System, modeling, planning and control

Author  David J. Cappelleri et al.

Video ID : 359

This video shows an example of peg-in-hole manipulation on the mesoscale. Three robust motion primitives are introduced, i.e., one-point sticking contact with counterclockwise rotation, two-point contact motion without rotation, and robust rotation. These motion primitives are sequentially executed to accomplish the peg-in-hole manipulation task.

Grasp and multifingers-three cylindrical peg-in-hole demonstration using manipulation primitives

Author  Karl P. Kleinmann et al.

Video ID : 360

This video shows a cylindrical peg-in-hole task performed by a three-finger tendon driven robot. Manipulation primitives are used to perform the task depending on the requirements of the various assembly stages.

Demonstration of multisensor integration in industrial manipulation

Author  Torsten Kröger et al.

Video ID : 361

This video demonstrates the potential of multisensor integration in industrial manipulation. A robot is programmed to play the Jenga game. Two cameras are mounted on the manipulator to calculate the positions of all cuboids online. A 6-DOF force/torque sensor and a 6-DOF acceleration sensor are mounted between a hand and gripper to give force/tactile feedback. The manipulator randomly chooses one block and tries to push it out and then put it on the top of the tower. In this video, a record of putting 29 blocks onto the top of the tower is achieved.

A square peg-in-hole demonstration using manipulation skills

Author  Unknown

Video ID : 362

This video shows a square peg-in-hole demonstration using manipulation skills which refer to a set of motion primitives derived from the analysis of assembly tasks. This video demonstrated three manipulation skills: move-to-touch skill, rotate-to-level skill, and rotate-to-insert skill, which are executed to insert a square peg into a hole.

Control pre-imaging for multifingered grasp synthesis

Author  Jefferson A. Coelho Jr. et al.

Video ID : 363

The video demonstrates sensory-motor control for multifingered manipulation. The first part of the video shows a top and a lateral grasp of rectangular blocks synthesized by the proposed controller. The second part shows dexterous manipulation tests, controlling stable multiple fingers to walk over the surface of an object while grasping the object.

Robust and fast manipulation of objects with multi-fingered hands

Author  Thomas Schlegl et al.

Video ID : 364

The video shows an example of fast manipulation of inserting a bulb into a socket. The bulb is grasped by a TIT-hand and screwed until contact between the bulb and the socket is established.

Whole quadruped manipulation

Author  Toru Omata et al.

Video ID : 366

The video shows a quadruped robot that can use two of its legs for whole-body manipulation of objects. The robot can stand on the knee joints of its hind legs, grasp an object with the two front legs, and adjust its center of mass by rotating the hind knee joints to manipulate it. This enables the robot to place an object on its stomach/back and use the hind legs again for walking so that the object can be moved around in the environment.